The Philosophical and Physical Opinions
by Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle
Printed for J. Martin and J. Allestrye at the Bell in St. Pauls Church-Yard 1655.
To The LADY MARQVESSE OF NEWCASTLE,
On her Book intitled her Philosophicall, and Physicall Opinions.
Were the old Grave Philophers alive,
How they would envy you, and all would strive
Who first should burn their Books; since they so long
Thus have abus’d the world, and taught us wrong,
With hard words that mean nothing; which non-sense.
When we have Conn’d by heart, then we commence
Masters and Doctors, with grave looks; and then
Proud, because think, thus we are learned men,
And know not that we do know nothing right,
Like blinde men now, led onely by your sight.
And for diseases, let the Doctors look
Those worthy learned men but in your Book,
They’le finde such news in their art, and so true
As old Hippocrates he never knew,
Nor yet vast Gallen; so you need not seek
Farther then English, to know lesse in Greek;
If you read this and study it, you may
Out of dark ignorance see brighter Day.
To justifie the
Truth against falshood, laying those false, and malicious aspersions of her, that she was not Authour of her BOOKS.
I Would willingly begin with the common, and Dunstable rode of Epistles, Gentle Readers, but finding you much otherwise, I will fall to our discourse in hand. First ‘tis but your envious Supposition that this Lady must have converst with many Scholers of all kindes in learning, when ‘tis well known the contrary, that she never convert with any profest Shooler in learning, for to learn, neither did she need it, since she had the conversation of her Honorable, and most learned Brother from her cradle; and since she was married, with my worthy and learned Brother; and for my self I have lived in the great world a great while, and have thought of what has been brought to me by the senses, more then was put into me by learned discourse; for I do not love to be led by the nose, by Authority and old Authours, ipse dixit will not serve my turn, were Aristotle made a more Philosophical Bible then he is, and all scholers to have a lively faith in him, doth not move me to be of their Philosophical churche at all. And I assure you her conversation with her Brother, and Brother-in-law, were enough without a miracle or an impossibility to get the language of the arts, and learned professions, which are their terms, without taking any degrees in Schooles. It is not so difficult a thing though they make mountains of mole-hills, & say they, thatthis Lady useth many termes of the Schooles; but truly she did never Impe her high-flying Phancies, with any old broken Fethers out of any university; and if you read well, which is to understand, and look on her Poems, you will 〈◊〉 they are all new born Phansies, never toucht of heretofore. But for the rarity of the terms, or nests of Divines, Philosophers, Physicians, Geometricians, Astrono mers, and the rest of the Gown-Tribe, as one tearms them, how is it possible she should know them; And first for Divinity, when she speaks of Predestination, Free-will, 〈◊〉, and consubstantiation; truly these termes are not so hard to be got by heart as to be understood, since I beleeve it puzzels the learned to make sense of them. But I beseech you give this Lady so much capacity, as to get them by heart, since every Tub-preacher discourses of them, and every sanctified wife gossips them in wafers, and hipocris at every Christening. Next are the termes of the Philosophers, Certainly ‘tis no Conjuration to conceive Atomes, invisible, and indivisible bodies, elements, earth, air, water and fire, whereof your elementary fire under the moon is much doubted of, and then you have but three elements. Motion is a difficult thing indeed, to understand the varietes of it, but certainly not of a body moved, that’s no such transcendent thing. Dilation a spreading, Contraction a gathering together Rarificationthinning, and Condensation thickning; I confesse in the Latine it seems very learned, but in the English very vulgar, there-fore I beseech you give this Lady leave to have the wit, and the judgement to understand these Great no mysteries. And put the case now that this Lady should name materia prima, -and understand the English of it to be first matter, and ask her friend again what they mean by it, and he tells her they say they mean matter without form, and she should answer, there is no matter without some form, so materia prima are two Latine words that mean nothing. An incorporeal substance is too learned to be understood, so that is waved. Now for the termes of Physicians, when she speaks of Choler, Phlegme, Melancholy and Blood, and of Ventricles in the heart and brain, of veines, arteries and nerves, and discourses of fevers, apoplexies, convulsions, Dropsies, and divers other diseases with their particular causes, symptoms and cures; how should this Lady understand these terms say some? truly a good Farmers wife in the country, by seeing one of her sheep opened, may well understand the tearms of most of these, and a Constables wife of a hundred in Essex that useth Physick and Surgery may well talk of the diseases, without any great learned mystery, they are so plain and so common, as none needsto construe Greek in Hippocrates or Galen for them. But would you know how we know the great Mystery of these Physical terms, I am almost ashamed to tell you; not that we have been ever sickly, but by Melancholy often supposed our selves to bave such diseases as we had not, and learned Physitians were too wise to put us out of that humour, and so these tearms cost us much more then they are Worth, and I hope there is no body so malicious, as to envie our bargain, neither truly do I repent my bargain, since Physitians are the most rational men I have converst with all, and my worthy and very good friends, and truly this Lady never converst with any Physitian of any disease, but what she thought she had her self, neither hath she converst with many of that profession. Now for the great learning of knowing the terms of Geometricians, when this Lady touches upon Triangles, Squares, Circles, Diameters, Circumferences, Centers, lines straight and crooked &c. I will not dissect these great mysteries, because they are so very common, as the meanest understands all these termes, even to Joyners and Carpenters, therefore surely this Lady is capable of them.
Then of Astronomers, say they, when she speak’s of the Horizon, Meridian, Equator, Zodiack, Eclyptick, Tropicks, Poles of the world &c. When these termes are understood thats their meaning, they are no such subtilties, since every boy may be taught them, with an apple for the Globe, and the parings for the sphears, it is so ridiculous then to think that this Lady cannot understand these tearms, as it is rather to be laught at, then to trouble ones self to answer. And that invincible Problem, the quadrature of the circle, as they call it, which makes me doubt that they think themselves wiser, for naming the quadrature, then squaring the circle, who lives that hath not heard of it, and who lives that can do it, and who is dead that hath done it, and put the case it were done, what then? why then ‘tis squared, and that’s all, and that all is nothing, much ado about nothing. But we will leave these impertinent, malicious, and most false exceptions to the Lady, and her Books, and will now begin with her book of Poems, examining first her Philosophy there. Thats an old opinion of Atomes, say some, witnesse Democrates and many others; Tis very true they have talkt of atomes, but did they ever dispose of them as they are there, or tell you what several sorts there are of them, and what figure they bear, and being joyned, what forms they produce of all kindes, in all things, if you have read any such things before, i’le be bold to burn the Book. Why then all these are new opinions, and grounded upon Reason, I say some, but they are Paradoxes, what then? I hope a Paradox may be as true as an old opinion, and an old opinion as false as a Paradox, for neither the one nor the other makes a truth, either the new or the old, for what is most reason & reasonable; for in natural Philosophy, one opinion may be as true as another, since no body knows the first cause in nature of any thing. Then this Ladies Philosophy is excellent, and will be thought so hereafter, and the truth is that it was wholy, and onely wrought out of her own brain, as there are many witnesses, by the several sheets that she sent daily to be writ fair for the presse. As for her Poems, where are the exceptions to these? marry they misse sometimes in the numbers and in the rimes. It is well known by the copies, that those faults lie most upon the Corrector, and the Printer; but put the case there might be some slips in that kinde, is all the book damned for it, no mercy Gentlemen? when for the numbers, every Schoole-boy can make them on his fingers, and for Rimes Fenner would have put down Ben. Johnson, and yet neither the boy or Fenner so good Poets. No, it is neither of those either makes, or condemns a Poet, it is new born and creating Phansies that Glorifies a Poet, and in her Book of Poems, I am sure there is excellent, and new Phancies, as have not been writ by any, and that it was onely writ by her is the greatest truth in the world. Now for her Book called the Worlds Olio, say some, how is it possible that she showld have such experience, to write of such things so; I answer, that I living long in the great world, and having the various fortunes of what they call good and bad, 〈◊〉 the reading of men might bring me to as much experience as the reading of Books, and this I have now and then discourst unto this Lady, who hath wisely and elegantly drest it in her own way, and sumptuously cloathed it, at the charge of her own Phancies and expressions; I say some of them she hath heard from me, but not the fortieth part of her book, all the rest are absolutely her own in all kindes, this is an ingenious truth, therefore beleeve it. As for the Book of her Philosophical opinions, there is not any one thing in the whole Book, that is not absolutely spun out by her own studious phancy, and if you will lay by a little passion against writers, you will like it, and the best, of any thing she has writ, therefore read it once or twice, not with malice to finde a little fault, but with judgement to like what is good. Truly I cannot beleeve so unworthily of any Scholer, honouring them so much as we both do, that they should envie this Lady, or should have so much malice or emulation, to cast such false aspersions on her, that she did not write those Books that go forth in her name, they will hardly finde out who else writ them, and I protest none ever writ them but her self; You should rather incourage her, then by false suppositions to let her see the world is so ill natured, as to beleeve falshoods before truths. But here’s the crime, a Lady writes them, and to intrench so much upon the male prerogative, is not to be forgiven; but I know Gown-men will be more civil to her, because she is of the Gown too, and therefore I am confident you will defend her and truth, and thus be undeceived. I had not troubled you with this, but that a learned Doctor, our very noble friend, writ is word of the infidelity of some people in this kinde; whatsoever I have write is absolutly truth, which I here as a man of Honour set my hand to.
To The READER.
In my Book called the Worlds Olio, there are such grosse mistakes in misplacing of Chapters, and so many literall faults, as my book is much disadvantaged thereby.
As for Chapters, there are many misplaced, for some Chapters that belong to that part of diseases, are misplaced among those of natural Philosophy, as one that belongs to sleep, and three Chapters that are of the temper of Aire; likewise another Chapter of the strength of the soul and body is placed between the first and last part of the Common-Wealth, which nothing belongs to it: for though there is a soul and body belonging to every Common-Wealth, yet not such a soul and body as I have discourst of there.
For the soul of a Common-Wealth is Actuall Justice, and industry.
The soul of a man is Contemplation, Reason, and imagination.
And the body of a Common-Wealth, is the Citizens therein, and Magistrates thereof.
And the body of a man is the senses therein, and the members thereof.
Likewise the strength of a Common-Wealth is the Laws.
And the strength of a mans body is the nerves.
Likewise a short copie of verses which is at the latter end of the book, is what I intended for this book, as being my beloved of all my works, prefering it as my master-piece, although I do beleeve it will not please my Readers, because as I have said in some of my Epistles, few take delight in the study of Natural Philosophy, yet those that delight not, or slight the study, or dispraise the work, make it not the lesse rational, for reason will be reason in the despite of the most malicious detractors or sophsterian censurers, but for the faults and mistakes in my other works, and perchance the like mischance may come to these, and although I know a passion cannot recal an injury past: yet I cannnot but grieve at the misfortune, as for a friend that should be hurt or lamed by some unhappy accident, but if there be any other faults of indiscretions in it, I the Author am to be pardoned by reason somwhat of it was writ in the dawning of my knowledge, and experience, and not having a clear light I might chance to stamble in dark ignorance on molehills of errors; not that I accuse my book of faults; but arm my self with truth against crabbed censurers. Likewise I do not lay all the faults in my book to the Printers or Correctors charge, for that would be so great an injustce, as I could never forgive my self for the crime, for the Chapters that are misplaced are through my fault, by reason I sent some part of it after the book was in the presse, and it seems that the Printer or corrector not understanding where to place them, put them in a wrong place.
But the literate faults I lay to their charge, whereof I cannot choose but complain, for in some places it is so falsly printed, as one word alters the sense of many lines; whereby my book is much prejudiced, and not onely by putting in false words, as a costements, for accoutraments, ungrateful for ungraceful, muster for mufler, and the like; but the significancy of words, to expresse a singular for a plural; yet I must confesse that this book is much truer Printed then my book of Poems, for where this book hath one fault, that hath ten; for which I can forgive the Printer, and Corrector ten times easier then I did for the other, but setting aside the faults of my book, and complaining thereof, I must take the liberty in my own behalf to complain of this ill natured, and unbeleeving age, in not allowing me to be the right Authour thereof; and though it were an endlesse work to answer every idle and impertinent question, or malicious objection; for I am assured that rational, wise, learned, and just persons will never make a doubt, knowing that nature hath power to temper a brain as she pleaseth both to receive, retain, discuss, and create, yet for truths sake I am willing to satisfie my worthy readers (if I can) although I had thought I had answerd it in my former writings.
But to answer those objections that are made against me, as first, how should I come by so much experience, as I have expressed in my several books to have? I answer, I have had by relation, the long and much experience of my Lord, who hath lived to see and be in many changes of fortunes, and to converse with many men of sundry nations, ages, qualities, tempers, capacities, abilities, wits, humors, fashions and customes. And as many others, especially wives go from church to church, from ball to ball, from collation to collation, gossiping from house to house, so when my Lord admits me to his company, I listen with attention to his edifying discourse, and I govern my self by his Doctrine; I dance a measure with the muses, feast with the Sciences, or sit and discourse with the arts.
The second is, that since I am no Scholer, I cannot know the names and terms of art, and the divers and several opinions of several Authors, I answer, that I must have been a natural fool if I had not known and learnt them, for they are customarily taught all children from their nurses brest being ordinarily discoursed of in every family that is of quality, and the family from whence I sprung are neither natural idiots, nor ignorant fools, but the contrary, for they were rational, learned, understanding and wittie. And when I said I never converst an hour with professed Philosophers, for indeed in this age, I have not heard of many which do professe it, or an intimate acquaintance or familiar conversation with profest scholers, nor so much discourse as to learn from them, for three or four visits do not make an intimacy, nor familiarity, nor can much be learnd therefrom, for visiting and entertaining discourse, for the most part are either cautionary, frivolous, vain, idle, or at least but common and ordinary matter, and most commonly all visiting discourses, are after one and the same manner, although the company be several; but I did not think my readers would have been so rigid as to think I excluded my husband, brothers, and the rest of my family, neither are they profest Philosophers nor Scholers, although they are learned therein, or to beleeve I was so ridiculously foolish, or so foolishly vain, or so basely false as that I strive to make the world to beleeve, I had all my experience and knowledge before I was born, and that my native Language came by instinct, and that I was never taught my A, B, C; or the marks and names of several things; but I hope my book hath more spiteful enemies then faults; for I have said in an Epistle before the second part of my Olio, that if I had never seen nor heard so much as I have done, should never have been able to have writ a book.
Thirdly, that I had taken feathers out of the Universities to enlarge the wings, of my fancy; I answer, no more then David took the wooll from his sheeps backs to cloath his Poetical Phancies of devotion, or as I may say his devout Poetry which is drest with simulising.
But it hath been known in several ages, that even poor Peasents that hear nothing but the blating of sheep: the lowing of herds, the crowing of cocks, and the like, and their ordinary discourses of nothing but of their market, or the like, have been high flying Poets, politick states men, wise Governours, prudent Souldiers, subtle Philosophers, excellent Physitians, and what not, even to be eloquent Orators, and Divine preachers, as the holy writ will make manifest to us, and I beleeve many more are mentioned in other Histories of lesse authority; thus we may observe that nature is Prevalent in all qualities and conditions; And since nature is so generous to distribute to those that fortune hath cast out, and education hath neglected, why should my readers mistrust nature should be sparing to me, who have been honourably born, carefully bred, and nobly married to a wise man, from whom, as I have said in some of my Epistles, in my book called the Worlds Olio, and do here say again, and again, if it will satisfie the Readers that I am my Lords Scholer, and as I have learnt, so I do daily learn knowledge and understanding, wit, and the purity of my language; and let me intre at my Readers to be so just to me, as not to condemn me for an ideot by their objections and doubts, as not beleeving I am capable of learning, but let me tell my Readers that what I have learned since I was married, it is from my Lord, and what I had learned before it was from wy own familie, as from my own brothers, for my father died when I was young, and not from strangers; for though I have seen much company, yet I have converst with few, and I take conversation to be in talking, which I have not practised very much, unlesse it be to particular friends, for naturally I am so wedded to contemplations, that many times when I have been in company, I had not known one word they have said, by reason my busie thoughts have stopped the sense of my hearing; and though I prefer the delight of contemplation, before the pleasure of the senses, yet when the neerest and dearest of my friends speak, as my husband, brothers, sisters, or their children, my affection is such that I give such an atention to them, as if I had no other thoughts but of what they say, or any other sense but hearing; but as I have said of the names and tearms of art, and the several opinions of the Antients, and the distinguishment of the sciences, and the like, I learned them from my neerest and dearest friends as from my own brothers, my Lords brother, and my Lord (but having the words and termes of art makes me not a Philosopher) nor a Poet; and if every one in justice ought to have a due, then nature must have a share, and truly I will never be so ingrateful as not to acknowledge her favours, or to belie her in saying she hath not been bountiful to me, for she hath given me such materials, as I hope to build me a monumental fame therewith; but to satisfie my Readers, I will tell them as well as I can how I came to know, and understand passages, all though I never practised, or were a spectator therein, or thereof; as put the case my husband, or brothers should tell me of an Army of horse and foot, and that two Armies encountred, and fought a battle, and expresse the forms and figures, rancks and fiels, the flanck, the wings the vans, the rears, and the like, by which relation to my conceit I see it in my brain as perfectly, as if the battle was pitcht, and fought there, and my fancy will build discourse therefrom. Likewise if they should tell me all the parts of an Animal body, and how they are formed and composed, I conceive it as perfectly to my understanding as if I had seen it dissected although I never did and therefore may be deceived in my understanding, for truly I have gathered more by piece-meals, then from a full relation, or a methodical education for knowledge; but my fancy will build thereupon, and make discourse therefrom, and so of every thing they discourse of, (I say they) that is my husband and brothers; For the singularity of my affections are such, that though I have an ill memory, and could not if it were for my life relate word for word of any discourse, if it be any thing long that I shall hear from strangers, for I am the worst repeater of a story from strangers, or out of a book in the World, when from my neer friends (especially my Lord) whose discourses are lively discriptions, I cannot forget any thing they say, such deep impressions their words print in my brain, when I cannot remember one discourse perfectly from others, were they holy sermons to save my soul. but as I have said from a bare relation, I can conceive to my thinking every particular part, and passage, as if I were a witnesse thereof, or an actor therein; but many things, although I should never have heard of any such thing, yet my natural reason will guide and discover to me, the right and the truth.
For put the case I see a watch, or any other invention, and none should tell me how it was made, yet my natural reason would conceive how it was made, so in natural things my natural reason will conceive them without being any wayes instructed; and so working a brain I have that many times on small objects or subjects will raise up many several phancies, and opinions therein, from which my discourse betwixt reason and those opinions will be produced; but the truth is, I have more materials to build with, then ground to build on, wherby they become uselesse, but I beleeve time will moulder them to dust, or accidents, as sicknesse may destroy them, as dropsies may drown them, fevers may burn them, consumptions may waste them, or griefs may wither them, or other imployments like usurpers may throw it out of my head, but as yet my head is fully populated with divers opinions, and so many phancies are therein, as sometimes they lie like a swarm of bees in a round heap, and sometimes they flie abroad to gather honey from the sweet flowry rhetorick of my Lords discourse, and wax from his wise judgement which they work into a comb making chapters therein. But those that make these and the like idle objections against me either have not read all my Epistles, and the rest of my books or understands them not, but that is not my fault, but their unjust natures, to censure and condemn before they examine or understand; Nay they do in somethings faulsely, ac cuse, and maliciously break out of some of my Epistles some parts to throw against me, which is most base and cruel to dismember my book tormenting it with spiteful objections, misforming the truth with falshood: but those that have noble and generous souls will beleeve me, and those that have base and mechannick souls, I care not what they say, and truly I would not have troubled my self in striving to satisfie this present age which is very censorious; but fear the future age wherein I hope to live, may be deceived, and I by false constructions wronged; for I have observed that the ignorant, and malicious, do strive to disturb, and obstruct all probable opinions, wittie ingenuities, honest industry, vertuous indeavours, harmlesse phancies, innocent pleasures, and honourable fames although they become infamous thereby.
Readers I had forgotten to mention the objection, that there is no distinction between a scholer, and a Philosopher, if they mean as being vulgarly called both scholers I answer a scholer is to be learnd in other mens opinions, inventions and actions, and a philosopher is to teach other men his opinions of nature, and to demostrate the works of nature, so that a scholer is to learn a Philosopher to teach, and if they say there is no distinction between a profest scholer, and a profest philosopher, I am not of their opinion; for a profest scholer in theologie, is not a profest Philosopher; for Divines leave nature on the left hand, and walk on the right to things supernatural and if they mean profest scholers, as being bred at universities ( I answer) that I take not all those that are bred at an Vniversity, and those that are learned to be profest scholers, or those that are great Philosophers to be profest, unlesse they make it their profession, as a profest Divine that hath taken Orders, or a profest Physitian that hath commenced Doctor, or profest Pleaders, or Lawyers that are made Barresters, or Philosophers, that teach Scholers; but certainly there are many that are very learned that are not profest, as being of that profession by which they live.
Likewise an objection for my saying I have not read many Books; but I answer, for not reading of many Authors, had I understood several Languages, as I do not, , I have not had so much time; had I indeavoured to have been learned threin, for learning requires close studies, long time, and labour.
Besides, our sex takes so much delight in dressing and adorning themselves, as we for the most part make our gowns our books, our laces our lines, our imbroderies our letters, and our dressings are the time of our studie; and instead of turning over solid leaves, we turn our hair into curles, and our sex is as ambitious to shew themselves to the eyes of the world, when finely drest, as Scholers do to expresse their learning to the ears of the world, when fully fraught with Authors.
But as I have said my head was so full of my own naturai phancies, as it had not roome for strangers to boord therein, and certainly natural reason is a better tutor then education; for though education doth help natural reason to a more sudden maturity, yet natural reason was the first educator; for natural reason did first compose Common-Wealths, invented arts, and sciences, and if natural reason have composed, invented and discoverd, I know no reason, but natural reason may finde out what natural reason hath composed, invented, and discovered, without the help of education; but some may say that education is like mony n put to use, which begets increase; I say it is true, but natural reason is the principal, which without increase could not be, but in truth natural reason, is both the principal and the increase, for natural reason produceth beneficial effects, and findes out the right and the truth, the wrong and the falshood of things, or causes; but to conclude, what education hath not instructed me, natural Reason hath infor med me of many things.
To The TWO UNIVERSITIES.
Most Famously learned,
I Here present the sum of my works, not that I think wise School-men, and industrious, laborious students should value my book for any worth, but to receive it without a scorn, for the good incouragement of our sex, lest in time we should grow irrational as idiots, by the 〈◊〉 of our spirits, through the carelesse neglects, and despisements of the masculine sex to the effeminate, thinking it impossible we should have either learning or understanding, wit or judgement, as if we had not rational souls as well as men, and we out of a custom of dejectednesse think so too, which makes us quit all all industry towards profitable knowledge being imployed onely in looe, and pettie imployments, which takes away not onely our abilities towards arts, but higher capacities in speculations, so as we are become like worms that onely live in the dull earth of ignorance, winding our selves sometimes out, by the help of some refreshing rain of good educations which seldom is given us; for we are kept like birds in cages to hop up and down in our houses, not sufferd to fly abroad to see the several changes of fortune, and the various humors, ordained and created by nature; thus wanting the experiences of nature, we must needs want the understanding and knowledge and so consequently prudence, a nd invention of men: thus by an opinion, which I hope is but an erronious one in men, we are shut out of all power, and Authority by reason we are never imployed either in civil nor marshall affaires, our counsels are despised, and laught at, the best of our actions are troden down with scorn, by the over-weaning conceit men have of themselves and through a dispisement of us. But I considering with my self, that if a right judgement, and a true understanding, & a respectful civility live any where, it must be in learned Universities, where nature is best known, where truth is oftenest found, where civility is most practised, and if I finde not a resentment here, I am very confident I shall finde it no where, neither shall I think I deserve it, if you approve not of me, but if I desserve not Praise, I am sure to receive so much Courtship from this sage society, as to bury me in silence; thus I may have a quiet grave, since not worthy a famous memory; but to lie intombed under the dust of an University will be honour enough for me, and more then if I were worshipped by the vulgar as a Deity. Wherefore if your wisdoms cannot give me the Bayes, let your charity strow me with Cypres; and who knows but after my honourable burial, I may have a glorious resurrection in following ages, since time brings strange and unusual things to passe, I mean unusual to men, though not in nature: and I hope this action of mine, is not unnatural, though unusual for a woman to present a Book to the University, nor impudence, for the action is honest, although it seem vain-glorious, but if it be, I am to be pardoned, since there is little difference between man and beast, but what ambition and glory makes.
An EPILOGE To MY PHILOSOPHICAL OPINIONS.
Some say that my Book of Philosophy, it seems as if I had converst with Des-Cartes or Master Hobbes, or both, or have frequented their studies, by reading their works, but I cannot say but I have seen them both, but upon my conscience I never spake to monsieur De Cartes in my lise, nor ever understood what he said, for he spake no English, and I understand no other language, and those times I saw him, which was twice at dinner with my Lord at Paris, he did appear to me a man of the fewest words I ever heard. And for Master Hobbes, it is true I have had the like good fortune to see him, and that very often with my Lord at dinner, for I conversing seldom with any strangers, had no other time to see those two famous Philosophers; yet I never heard Master Hobbes to my best remembrance treat, or discourse of Philosophy, nor I never spake to Master Hobbes twenty words in my life, I cannot say I did not ask him a question, for when I was in London I meet him, and told him as truly I was very glad to see him, and asked him if he would please to do me that honour to stay at dinner, but he with great civility refused me, as having some businesse, which I suppose required his absence.
And for their works, my own foolish fancies do so imploy my time, as they will not give me leave to read their books, for upon my conscience I never read more of Mounsieur Des-Cartes then half his book of passion, and for Master Hobbes, I never read more then a little book called De Cive, and that but once, nor never had any body to read to me, as for their opinions, I cannot say I have not heard of many of them. As the like of others, but upon my conscience not throughly discoursed of, for I have heard the opinions of most Philosophers in general, yet no otherw aies then if I should see a man, but neither know his estate, quality, capacity, or natural disposition, thus upon my conscience is a truth, not onely in these two Philosophers, but all Philosophers, and not onely Philosophers, but all their learned men, so that I am no otherwayes learned in writers works, or other opinions then those that onely learned the tearms of arts, and sciences, but know no more. The like they may say of Physitians, as of Philosophers, when they read my opinions of diseases; it is true I have converst with Physitians more then any other learned profession, yet not so much as to increase my understanding, although more then was advantagious for my health, indeed I have been the worst Physitian to my self; besides wise learned men think it a discredit to discourse learnedly to ignorant women, and many learned men speak most commonly to women, as women do to children nonsense, as thinking they understand not any thing, or else like those that are of another Language speak such gibbrish, to those they would have understood that they understand not themselves yet think those they speak to do conceive them, as if ignorance was bound to understand nonsense, that is not to be understood; but I desire my Readers, or censurers; for some will censure that have not read, or at least not understood me, that I did never take nor steal any opinion, or argument from any other as my own, nor never will, and if I hit or light upon the same, it is meer chance. Tis true, I have mentioned many opinions, but not as my own opinions or arguments, but rather, 〈◊〉 civilly I have been opposite to those opinions I have heard of, and I make no question but if my Readers will take the paines to compare my writings to others, and throughly examine them, they will I make no question, finde great difference; for though other Philosophy have treated of matter, form, and motion, being the fundamental ground, of all all natural Philosophical discourse, yet I believe not my way, nor I never read any book of diseases, or medicines but Gerrards Herball, which no question is a very rare book, and cetainly discribes the tempers of herbs, fruits, and drugs very learnedly, but I do verily 〈◊〉 the learning lies more in the tempers then in the applications; for I beleeve where one is rightly applied, forty are falsly applied, and how shall it be otherwaies, unlesse he had studied the motions and tempers of diseases; for one and the same diseases may be of several tempers, and motions, wherefore one and the same simple will not cure one and the same kinde, or rather sort of disease; Wherefore I beseech my readers to be so charitable, and just, as not to bury my works in the monuments of other writers, but if they will bury them, let it be in their own dust, or oblivion, for I had rather be forgotten, then scrape acquaintance, or insinuate my self into others company, or brag of received favours, or take undeserved gifts, or belie noble Benefactors, or to steal, although I were sure the theft would never be discovered, and would make me live eternally.
But I have no acquaintance with old Authors, nor no familiarity with the moderns, I have received no instructions by learning, and I never owned that which was not justly my own, nor never stole that which was justly anothers, neither have I retained, but plain truth to defend, and conscience towitnesse for me.
Besides, I have heard that learning spoiles the natural wit, and the fancies, of others, drive the fancies out of our own braines, as enemies to the nature, or at least troublesome guests that fill up all the rooms of the house.
This opinion, or rather a known truth, was a sufficient cause for me, neither to read many Books, or hear arguments, or to dispute opinions, had I ever been edicted to one, or accustomed to the other, by reason I found a naturall inclination, or motion in my own brain to fancies, and truly I am as all the world is, partial, although perchance, or at least I hope not so much as many are, yet enough to desire that my own fancies, and opinions might live in the world, rather then the fancies and opinions of other mens in my brain.
An EPISTLE To MY HONOURABLE READERS.
Most Noble Reader, let not partialitie, or obstinacie weigh judgments scales, but truth; wherefore if you weigh my Philosophical, and Physical opinions with the ancient Philosophers, lay by the weaknesse, and incapacity of our sex; my unexperienced age, my unpractised time, my ignorant studies, my faint knowledge, and dim understanding to help to pair my discourse, with theirs, in which scale there are learned studies, long experience, practised time, high arguments, and School-disputations; Besides, they draw and make the large river of their discourse from many several springs; mine onely flows in little Rivolets, from the natural spring in my own brain.
An EPISTLE To The Reader, for my Book of Philosophy.
Perchance many that read this book, will hardly understand it, not but it may be as rational, and as probable, as any that have writ before, but unlesse they be contemplary persons, which are not many in our nation, especially in the Protestant opinion, which live not Monastical lives, are not so curious, nor so inquisitive, after nature, as to study that Science; Besides, they think it unprofitable, bringing no advantage; but they are much mistaken, for that it is a great insight to the knowledge of all Vegetables, Minerals, and Animals, their constitutions, their sympathies, and antipathies, their extractions, and applications which they apply, for health, and prolonging of life; Besides, the study in this Science, brings them acquainted with the course of the stars and planets, and the several tempers of the Climats, and the nature of the several Soyls, which is profitable in husbandry; then it is advantagious for the art of Navigation, and Plantations, and many other things; but above all, this study is a great delight, and pleases the curiosity of mens minds, it carries their thoughts above vulgar and common Objects, it elevates their spirits to an aspiring pitch; It gives room for the untired appetites of man, to walk or run in, for so spatious it is, that it is beyond the compasse of time; besides, it gives pleasure in varieties, for infinite wayes are sirawed with infinite varieties, neither doth it binde up man to those strickt rules as other Sciances do, it gives them an honest liberty, and proves temperance is the greatest pleasure in nature. Tis true, moral Philosophy is an excellent study, but the doctrine is too strict for the practise, for it teaches more then can be followed, and Theologie is a glorious study, but the way is difficult and dangerous, for though there are many pathes, yet there is but one that leads to heaven, and those that step awrie fall into the Gulph of damnation, and the deep study in this many times blindes the eyes, both of faith and reason, and instead of uniting mankind with love, to live in peace, it makes discords with controversies, raises up faction to uphold each-side, whose endlesse quarrels are followed with such hatred, and fought with such malice and envie, and the zeal spits so much blood, as if not onely several parties would be rased out, but the bulk of mankinde; And to study Law, is to study dissention, to study Logick is to study deceit, to make falshood appear like truth; to study Rhetorick is to study words more then sense, and many the like studies are more painful then useful, more time lost then profit got, more tedious then pleasant, more sophistry then truth. Indeed the Mathematicks brings both profit and pleasure to the life of man, it gives just measure and equal weight, it makes all odd reckonings even, it sets all musical notes, it brings concord out of discord, it gives diminution and extention; But as I said before, few or none but Monastical men, which live contemplary lives, despising the vanities of the world, next to the service of God, seek to be acquainted with nature, and to observe the course of her works, yet in an humble and respectful manner, as to admire her curiosity, and to glorifie and adore the God of nature, for the wonders they finde by her works, and workings: for this reason, if I had been so learned, I would have put my book into Latine, which is a general language through all Europe, and not have writ it in my native Language, which goeth no further then the kingdom of England, wherein I fear my book will finde but little applause; because few therein study natural Philosophy, and what they understand not, they cannot judge of, yet I beleeve all that read will take upon them to give a censure, and what their weak braines is not capable to reach at, their active tongues are capable to pull down, so that I fear me my book will be lost in oblivion, or condemned by ignorance, unlesse some generous disposition which hath a genius in natural Philosophy, and learned and eloquent in the Latine tongue will translate my work; yet I had rather my book should die in Oblivion, then to be divulged to disadvantage, and instead of cloathing it in a new garment, they will dismember the body of sense, as to put out the natural eyes, and put in glasse eyes in the place, or to cut off the legs, and then set the body upon wooden stumps, but unlesse the Translator hath a genius sutable to the Author of the Original, the Original will be disfigured with mistakes; yet it is easier to translate prose then verse, for rimes, number, and sense, are hard to match in several Languages, it is double labour, and requires double capacitie; for although Ovid and Dubartus were so happy as to meet a Sylvester and a Sands, yet very few or no other had the like good fortune in our Language: for this reason I would have turned my Atomes out of verse into prose, and joyned it to this book, but I finding my brain would be like a river that is turned from its natural course, which will neither run so smooth, swift, easie, nor free, when it is forced from its natural motion and course, both which made me desist &c.
An EPISTLE To MY READERS.
I Must advertise my Readers that though I have writ difserent wayes of one and the same subject, yet not to obstruct, crosse, or contradict; but I have used the freedom, or taken the liberty to draw several works upon one ground, or like as to build several rooms upon one foundation, likewise my desire was, to expresse the several works that several motions make in printed figures, that the sense of my opinions might be explained to the eye, as well as to the ear, or conceivements of my Readers; but by reason the Painters and Cutters in this Country cannot speak, nor understand English, nor I any other Language; which reason perswaded me to let my Book be Printed without them, for though I might have had such an Interpreter that could expresse grosse material subjects, yet none that were so learned in both Languages, as to expresse, and instruct them to expresse by their art the figures of the fine, curious, subtil, and obscure motions in nature, and to have them all done would have rather puzled my Readers, and confounded the sense of my opinions, then any wayes have advantaged the one, or informed the other.
Wherefore I must intreat my Readers to take a little more paines, and care in the reading, and considering part.
An EPISTLE To MY READERS.
I Desire my Readers to give me the same priviledge to discourse in natural Philosophy, as Scholers have in schooles, which I have heard speak freely, and boldly, without being condemned for Atheisme; for they speak as natural Philosophers, not as Divines: and since it is natural Philosophy, and not Theologie, I treat on, pray account me not an Atheist, but beleeve as I do in God Almighty.
A CONDEMNING TREATISE OF ATOMES.
I Cannot think that the substance of infinite matter is onely a body of dust, such as small atoms, and that there is no solidity, but what they make, nor no degrees, but what they compose, nor no change and variety, but as they move, as onely by fleeing about as dust and ashes, that are blown about with winde, which me thinks should make such uncertainties, such disproportioned figures, and confused creations, as there would be an infinite and eternal disorder. But surely such wandring and confused figures could never produce such infinite effects; such rare compositions, such various figures, such several kindes, such constant continuance of each kinde, such exact rules, such undissolvable Laws, such fixt decrees, such order, such method, such life, such sense, such faculties, such reason, such knowledge, such power, which makes me condemn the general opinions of atoms, though not my particular opinions of the figures, that the long atoms make air, the round water, the flat square earth; also that all the other figures are partly severed from those; also the measure, and the weight of atoms, of slime, flame, of burning, of quenching of fire, and of the several motions, compositions, and composers in their creating and dissolving of figures; also their wars and peace, their sympathies and antipathies, and many the like; but this opinion of mine is, if the infinite, and eternal matter are atoms, but I have considered that if the onely matter were atoms, and that every atome is of the same degree, and the same quantity, as well as of the same matter; then every atom must be of a living substance, that is innate matter, for else they could not move, but would be an infinite dull and immoving body, for figures cannot make motion, unlesse motion be in the matter, and it cannot be a motion that sets them at work without substance, for motion cannot be without substance or produced therefrom, and if motion proceeds from substance, that substance is moving innately, but if motion is nothing, then every several nothings, which are called several motions, are gods to infinite matter, and our stronger nothing, which is every stronger motion, is god to every weaker nothing, which is every weaker motion; for if motion depend upon nothing, every particular motion is absolute; but the old opinions of atoms seems not so clear to my reason, as my own, and absolutly new opinions, which I hear call my Philosophical opinions, which opinions seem to me to be most probable, and these opinions are like Chymistrie, that from a grosse substance, extract the substance and essence, and spirits of life, or knowledge which I call the innated matter.
The OPINION, or RELIGION OF The OLD PHILOSOPHERS.
Natural Philosophers in their opinions make three gods, the causer, the worker, and the matter, as God, nature, and the Chaos, all three being eternal, as the causer God was, is, and shall be, the worker, nature was, is, and shall be, the matter, chaos was, is, and shal be, was ever, is present, and shall be eternally, and whatsoever was in its self from all eternity, and shall be to all eternity, is a God, but if they make them all but one thing, then they may say there is but one God; but if they make them three distinct things, then they make three Gods, for though they make them all one in unity, yet not in property, but God is like a Center, from whom all infinites flow, as from him, and through him, and to him, his infinite knowledg knowes all past, present, and what is to come, and is a fixt instant.
The TEXT To MY Natural Sermon.
I As the preacher of nature, do take my text out of natural observance, and contemplation, I begin from the first chapter, which is the onely, and infinite matter, and conclude in the last which is eternity.
But I desire my noble Readers to hear me with so much patience, or be so just to me as to observe, that though my text is common, for who hath not heard of the first matter? and my application old, for what is older then eternity?
Yet that my arguments, and proofs are new; for what ancient Philosophers have preached after my way? wherefore most industrious and ingenious students, cast me not out of your Schools, nor condemn my opinions, out of a dispisement of my sex; for though nature hath made the active strength of the effeminat sex weaker then the masculine, yet perchance she may elevate some fancies, and create some opinions, as sublime, and probable in effeminate brains as in masculine.
Wherefore it were unjust to condemn the probable particulars for the errours of the generality; and if you speak or think me too vainglorious in pleading in my own cause, it may be thought you are irregular, and if I should not plead for my self in a just cause, it may be thought I were not a right begotten daughter of nature, but a monster produced by her escapes, or defects; for every true childe of nature will require its just inheritance.
The first cause is matter.
The second is Motion.
The third is figure
which produceth all natural effects.
Nature is matter, form, and motion, all these being as it were but one thing; matter is the body of nature, form is the shape of nature and motion.
The spirits of nature, which is the life of nature, and the several motions are the several actions of nature.
The several figures are the several postures of nature, and the several parts, the several members of nature.
OF MATTER AND MOTION.
THERE is no first matter, nor first Motion; for matter and motion are infinite, and being infinite, must consequently be Eternal; and though but one matter, yet there is no such thing, as the whole matter, that is, as one should say, All. And though there is but one kinde of matter, yet there are infinite degrees of matter, as thinner and thicker, softer and harder, weightier, and lighter; and as there is but one matter, so there is but one motion, yet there are infinite degrees of motion, as swifter and slower; and infinite changes of motion; And although there is but one matter, yet there are infinite of parts in that matter, and so infinits of Figures: if infinite figures, infinite sizes; if infinite sizes, infinite degrees of bignesse, and infinite degrees of smalnesse, infinite thicknesse, infinite thinnesle, infinite lightnesse, infinite weightinesse; if infinite degrees of motion, infinite degrees of strengths; if infinite degrees of strengths, infinite degrees of power, and infinite degrees of knowledge, and infinite degrees of sense.
Chap. 2. Of the Form and the Minde.*
*I mean of Form, dull Matter.
As I said, there is but one Matter, thinner and thicker which is the Form, and the Minde, that is, Matter moving, or Matter moved; likewise there is but one motion, though flower or swifter moving several wayes; but the slower or weaker motions are no lesse motion, then the stronger or swifter. So Matter that is is thinnest or thickest, softest or hardest, yet is but one matter; for if it were divided by digrees, untill it came to an Atome, that Atome would still be the same matter, as well as the greatest bulk. But we cannot say smallest, or biggest,, thinnest, softest or hardest it Infinite.
Chap. 3. Eternal matter.
That matter which was solid, and weighty from all Eternity, may be so eternally; and what was spungie, and light from all Eternity, may be so eternally; and what had innate motion from Eternity, may be so eternally; and what was dull without innate motion from Eternity, may be so eternally: for if the degrees could change, then there might be all thin, and no thick, or all thick, and no thin, all hard, no soft, and fluid, or all fluid, and no solidity. For though contracting and dilating may bring and joyn parts together, or separate parts asunder, yet those parts shall not be any other wayes, then by Nature they were.
Chap. 4. Of Infinite matter.
Infinite matter cannot have exact Form, or Figure, because it hath no Limits: but being divided by motion into several parts, those Parts may have perfect Figures, so long as those Figures last; yet these parts cannot be taken from the Infinite Body. And though parts may be divided in the Body Infinite, and joyned several wayes, yet Infinite can neither be added, nor diminished; yet division is as infinite as the matter divided.
Chap. 5. No proportion in Nature.
In Nature there is no such thing, as Number or Quantity; for Number, and Quantity have onely reference to division: neither is there any such thing as time in Eternity; for Time hath no reference but to the Present, if there be any such thing as Present.
Chap. 6. Of one Kinde of Matter.
Although there may be infinite degrees of matter, yet the Nature, and kinde of matter is finite: for Infinite of severall kindes of matter would make a Confusion.
Chap. 7. Of Infinite knowledge.
There can be no absolute Knowledge, if infinite degrees of Knowledge; nor no absolute power, if there be infinite degrees of strength: nor present, if infinite degrees of motion.
Chap. 8. No Judge in Nature.
No Intreaty, nor Petition can perswade Nature, nor any Bribes can corrupt, or alter the course of nature. Justly there can be no complaints made against Nature, nor to Nature. Nature can give no redresse. There are no Appeals can be made, nor Causes determined, because Nature is infinite, and eternal: for Infinite cannot be confined, or prescribed, setled, rul’d, or dispos’d, because the Effects are sa infinite as the Causes: and what is infinite, hath no absolute power: for what is absolute, is finite.
Finite cannot tell how Infinite doth flow,
Nor how infinite matter moveth to and fro.
For infinite of Knowledge cannot guess
Of infinite of matter, more, or lesse:
Nor infinite of Causes cannot finde
The infinite Effects of every Kinde.
Chap. 9. Of Perfection.
In infinite can no perfection be, For why? Perfection is in Unity. In infinite no union can combine, For that has neither Number, point nor Line; Though infinite can have no Figure, Yet not lie all confus’d in heaps together
*Some think there was a Chaos, a confused Heap.
Chap. 10. Of Inequalities.
If infinites have infinite degrees,
And none alike to make Equalities.
As if a Haire be cut with curious Arts,
Innumerable but unequal parts,
And that not any part alike shall be,
How shall we joyn, to make them well agree?
If every one is like it self alone,
Three cannot be, unlesse three equal One.
If one, and one make two; and two, and two make four yet there must be two equal ones to make two, and two equal two’s to to make four. And as two and one make three, yet there must be two equal ones joyned to a single one, to make three, or three equal single ones to joyn in three.
The like is in weight, and Measure, Motion and Strength.
Chap. 11. Of Unities.
In infinite if infinite degrees, Then those Degrees may meet in Unities. And if one man should have the 〈◊〉 of four, Then four to equal him will be no more. As if one Line should be in four parts cut, Shall equal the same Line together put; So two and one, though odd is theer; Yet three and three shall equal be. Like those that equal spaces backwards go, To those that’s forward, equals them we know. Like Buckets in a Well if empty be, As one descends, the other ascends, we see; So Motions, though their crosse, may well agree, As oft in Musick make a Harmony.
Chap. 12. There is no Vacuity.
In Nature if Degrees may equal be, All may be full, and no Vacuity. As Boxes small, and smaller may contain, So bigger, and bigger must there be again. Infinite may run contracting, and dilating, Still, still, by degrees without a separating. Chap. 13. Of Thin, and Thick Matter. Thus may thin Matter into Solid run, And by its motion;, make thick Matter turn In several wayes, and fashions, as it will, Although dull Matter of it self lie still: Tis not, that Solid Matter moves in Thin, For that is dull, but thin which moves therein. Like Marrow in the Bones, or Blood in Veins; Or thinner matter which the blood contains. Like Heat in Fire, the effect is straight to burn, So Matter thin makes solid matter run.
Chap. 14. Of Vacuum.
If Infinite inequalitie doth run,* Then must there be in Infinite Vacuum. For what’s unequal, cannot joyned be So close, but there will be Vacuity.
*The Readers may take either Opinion.
Chap. 15. The Unity of Nature.
Nature tends to Unity, being but of a kinde of Matter, but the degrees of this Matter being thinner, and thicker, softer, and harder, weightier, and lighter, makes it, as it were, of different kinde, when tis but different degrees: Like several extractions, as it were out of one and the same thing; and when it comes to such an Extract, it turns to Spirits, that is, to have an Innate motion.
Chap. 16. Of Division.
The several degrees of Matter cause Division by different motion, making several Figures, erecting, and dissolving them, according as their matter moves. This makes motion and Figure alwayes to be in War, but not the matter; for it is the several effects that disagree, but not the Causes: for the Eternal matter is alwayes in peace, as being not subject to change; but motion and Figure, being subject to Change, strive for Superiority: which can never be, because subject to Change.
*Several Motitions, and severall Figures
Chap. 17. The Order of Nature.
The Reason, that there is not a Confusion in Nature, but an orderly Course therein, is, the Eternal matter is alwayes one, and the same: for though there are Infinite degrees, yet the Nature of that Matter never alters. But all variety is made according to the several Degrees, and the several degrees do palliate and in some sense make an Equality in infinite; so as it is not the several degrees of matter, that strive against each other, but several motions drive them against one another.
Chap. 18. Of War, and no absolute Power.
The Reason that all things make War upon one another, is, the several (*) Degrees of matter, the contradiction of motion, and the Degrees, and the advantage of the shapes of (**) Figures alwayes striving.
*Not the Matter, but the Degrees.
**Not the Bignesse of Figures, but the manner of shapes: which makes some shapes to have the advantage over others much bigger, as a Mouse will kill an Elephant.
Chap. 19. Of Power.
There is no absolute Power, because Power is infinite, and the infinitenesse hinders the absolutenesse: for if there were an absolute power, there would be no dispute: but because there is no absolute power, there would be no dispute; but because there is no absolute power, therefore there be Disputes, and will be eternally: for the several degrees of matter, motion, and Figure strive for the Superiority, making Faction by (*) Sympathy, and Fraction, by (**) Antipathy.
*Which is in Likenesse.
Chap. 20. Similizing the spirits, or Innate Matter.
The Spirits, or Essences in Nature are like Quick-silver: for say it be fluid, it will part into little Sphaerical Bodies, running about, though it be nere so small a Quantity: and though they are Sphaerical, yet those Figures they make by several, and subtle motion, may differ variously, and Infinitely.
This innate matter is a kinde of god or gods to the dull part of matter, having power to form it, as it please, and why may not every degree of Innate matter be as several gods, and so a strong motion be a god to the weaker, and so have an infinite, and Eternal Government? As we will compare motions to Officers, or Magistrates. The Constable rules the Parish, the Mayor, the Constable, the King the Mayor, and some Higher power the King: thus infinite powers rule Eternity. Or again thus, the Constable rules the Hundred, the Major rules the City, the King the kingdom, and Caesar the world.
Thus may dull matter over others rule,
According as ‘tis* shap’d by motions Tool.
So Innate matter Governs by degree,
According as the stronger motions be.
*One Shape hath power over another; one Minde knowes more then another.
Chap. 21. Of Operation.
All things in the world have an Operative power; which Operation is made by Sympathetical motions & Antipathetical motions, in several Figures. for the assisting Operation is caused by one, the destructive Operation by another; like Poyson and cordials, the one kills, the other cures: but Operations are infinite, as motions.
Chap. 22. Natural, or Sensivtie War.
All Natural War is caused either by a Sympathetical motion, or an Antepathetical motion. For Natural War, and Peace proceed from Self-preservation, which belongs only to the Figure; for nothing is annihilated in Nature, but the particular prints, or several shapes that motion makes of matter; which motion in every Figure strives to maintain what they have created: for when some Figures destroyothers, it is for the maintenance or security ofthemselves: and when the destruction is for, Food it is Sympathetical motion, which makes a particular Appetite, or nourishment from some Creatures to others; but an Antipathetical motion that makes the Destruction.
Chap. 23. Of Annihilation. There can be no Annihilation in Nature: nor particular motions, and Figures, because the matter remains that was the Cause of those Motions and Figures. As for particular figures, although every part is separated that made such a figure, yet it is not Annihilated; because those parts remain that made it. So as it is not impossible but the same particular Figures may be erected by the same motions, that joyned those parts, and in the matter may repeat the same motion eternally so by succession: and the same matter in a figure may be erected and dispersed eternally. Thus the dispersing of the matter into particular figures by an Alteration of motion, we call Death; and the joyning of parts to create a Figure, we call life. Death is a Separation, life is a Contraction.
*Either by Growth, or Sense, or Reason.
Chap. 24. LIFE.
Life is the Extract, or spirit of common matter: (*) this extract is Agile, being alwayes in motion; for the Thinnesse of this matter causes the subtilty of the Quality, or property, which quality, or preporty is to work upon all dull Matter. *For when Matter comes to such a degree, it quickens.
This Essence, or life, which are Spirits of sense, move of themselves: for the dull part of Matter moves not, but as it is moved thereby.
Their common motions are four.
Attractive is that which we call Growth, or youth. Retentive, is that we call strength. Digestive is that we call Health, that is an equal distribution of parts to parts, and agreeing of those spirits. Expulsive is that which we call Death, or decay. *That it begins to move, and Motion is Life.
The Attractive spirits gather, and draw the materials together.
The Digestive spirits do cut and carve out every thing.
The Retentive do fit, and lay them in their proper places.
The Expulsive do pul down, and scatter them about.
Those spirits most commonly move according to the matter they work on. For in spung and porous light matter, their motion is quick; in solid, and weighty, their motion is slower. For the solid parts are not onely dull, and immoveable of themselves, but they hinder and obstruct those Spirits of sence, and though they cut and pierce through all, yet it is with more labour, and slower motion; for their motions change according to the quantity and quality of that matter they meet with; for that which is porous and spungy, the Figures that they form that matter in, are sooner made, and sudenlier destroyed, then that which is more combustible. This is the reason, Minerals last longer then Vegetables, and Animals, because that matter is both tougher and harder to work on, then Vegetables and Animals are. *I mean when I say Obstruct, that it either turns their motion another way or makes them move slower.
These Sensitive spirits we may similize to several workmen, being alwayes busily imployed, removing, lifting, carrying, driving, drawing, digging, and the like. And although these spirits are of substance thinner then dull matter, yet they are stronger by reason of their subtility, and motion, which motion gives them power: for they are of an acute quality, being the Vitriol, as it were, of Nature, cut and divide all that opposeth their way.
Now these spirts, though they be infinite, yet we cannot think them so grosse an infinite, as combustible matter, yet those thinner infinites may cut, and carve the thicker infinites all into several figures: like as Aqua-fortis will eat into the hardest iron, and divide it into small parts.
As I have said before, the spirits of life works according as the matter is, for every thing is shap’d according to the solidity of the matter; like as a man which builds a house of such wood, which is tough, and strong, because he knows otherwise it will break, by reason of the great weight they are to bear, but to make laths, he takes his wood and cuts it thin, that the nails may the easier passe through, so joyning and fitting several sorts to proper uses to build his house. Or like a Cook, when he’s to raise a pie, must take stiff Dough; for otherwise it will not onely fall before it be finished, but it cannot be raised, and to make the lids to cover his pye, he must use a softer Paste, otherwise it will not rowl thin; thus a stiff paste is not fit for a lid, nor a thinner paste for to raise a Pye; it may make a Cake, or so. So the spirits of life must make figures, as the matter is fit: and proper therto, for the figure of man or the like; the spirits of life take the solid and hard matter for the* Bones: the Glutinous matter for the Sinews, Nerves, Muscles, and the like; and the Oyly matter, for Flesh, Fat, Marrow. So the fluid for Blood, and such like matter. and the spirits themselves do give this dull matter, motion, not onely in the building of the figure, but to make the figure move when it is built. *I do not say that bones are the solid’st matter in Nature.
Now the spirits of life, or lively spirits do not onely move dull and immoving matter, but makes that matter to move and work upon others; for some kinde of figures shall make* another to resemble it self, though not just be as it self is made, but as the shadow like the substance; for it works as a hand that is guided by another, and not of its own strength: that is the reason, Arts have not so much perfection as nature. The Copy is not so lively as the Original; for the spirits of life move, and work of their own strength, and the dul matter by the strength of the spirits. *As the figure of man.
Chap. 25. Of CHANGE.
The Change of motion in several Figures makes all change and difference in the World, and their several properties and effects thereto. And that which we call Death, or corruption, is not an absence of life, but an expulsive motion which doth* annihilate those figures, that erecting motion hath made. So death is an annihilation of the Print, not of the Mould of figures; for the Moulds of those figures of Mankinde, Beast, or Plant, of all kindes whatsoever, shall never be annihilated so long as motion and matter last, which may alwayes be; for the mould of all figures is in the power of motion, and the substance of matter. *All Motion is Life.
Chap. 26. Of Youth, or Growth.
Thus Spirits of sense work according to the substance of the matter: for if the matter be porous and light, they form those figures quicker, and dissolve them suddenly: But if their matter be solid and hard, they work slower, which makes some figures longer ere they come to perfection, and not so easily undone. And if their strength be too weak for the matter they work upon, as wanting help, then the figure is imperfect, and mishapen, as we say. This is the reason Animals and Vegetables, which are yong, have not so great strength as when they are full grown; because there are fewer spirits, and the materials are loose and unsetled, not knockt close: But by degrees more spirits gather together, which help to forward their work, bring in materials by food, setling them by nourishment, carrying out by Evacuations that matter that is unuseful, and that Rubbish and Chips, as I may say, which would hinder their motion. If they bring in unuseful matter, their figure increases not, as we say, thrives not. And if they carry out the principal materials, the figure decayes, and falls down. But those parts of matter which are not spirits, do not carry that part of matter which is spirit, but these spirits carry the dull matter. Thus the spirits, the innated matter, move in dull matter, and dull matter moveth by the spirits; and if the matter be fine, and not gross, which they build withal, and their motion be regular, then the figure is beautiful and well proportioned.
Chap. 27. Of Increasing.
The reason that the corruption of one figure is the cause of making of another of the same kinde, is, not onely, that it is of such a tempered matter that can onely make such a kinde of figure; but that the spirits make figures according to their strength: So that the spirits that are in the Seed, when they have* undone the figure they are in, by a general expulsion, which we call corruption, they begin to create again another figure of the same kinde, if no greater power hinder it. For the matter that is proper, to make such like figures, is fitted, or temper’d to their strengths. So as the Temper of the matter, and the strength of the spirits, are the Erectors of those figures eternally. And the reason, that from one Seed, less, or more Numbers are increased and rais’d, is, that though few begin the work, more will come to their help; and as their numbers are increased, their figures are more, or less, weaker, or stronger. *I mean the Figure of dull matter.
Chap. 28. Of Decay.
When Spirit of Life have created a Figure, and brought it* to perfection; if they did not pull it down again, they would be idle, having no work to do; and Idleness is against the nature of life, being a perpetual motion. For as soon as a figure is perfected, the spirits generally move to an expulsive motion. This is the reason, that Age hath not that strength as fullgrowth: But like an old house falling down by degrees, shed their Haires, or Leaves, instead of Tiles, the Windows broke down, and stopped with Rubbish.
So Eyes in Animals grow hollow and dim. And when the Foundation of a house is loose, every little winde shakes it. So when the Nerves being slack, and the Muscles untied, and the Joynts unhing’d, the whole Body is weak, and tottering, which we call Palsies: which Palsies, as the winde, shakes.
The Bloud, as the Springe dries up, Rhumes, as Rain falls down, and Vapours, as Dust, flie up. *As a plentiful Crop or a great Brood.
Chap. 29. Of Dead, and Death.
Dead is, where there is a General Alteration of such Motion, as is proper to such Figures. But Death is an Annihilation of that Print, or Figure, by an Expulsive Motion: And as that Figure dissolves, the Spirits disperse about, carrying their several burdens to the making of other Figures. Like as a house that is ruin’d by Time, or spoyled by accident; the several Materials are imployed to other uses; sometimes to the building of an house again. But a house is longer a building then a pulling down, by reason of the cutting, carving, laying, carrying, placing, and fitting every part to make them joyn together; so all the works of Nature are sooner dissolv’d then created.
Chap. 30. Of Local Shapes.
Some Shapes have power over others, but ‘tis not alwayes in the size, or bulk of the Figure, but in the manner of their Formes that give advantage, or disadvantage. A little Mouse will run through the Snowt of a great Elephant: A little Flye will sting a great Figure to death; A Worm will wind through a thick Body; The Lions force lies in his Claws; The Horses in his Hoof; The Dogs in his Teeth; The Bulls in his Horns; and Mans in his Armes, and Hands; Birds in their Bills, and Talons: And the manner of their Shapes gives them several properties, or faculties. As the Shape of a Bird causes them to flye, a Worm to creep, the Shape of a Beast to run, the Shape of Fish to swim; yet some flie swifter, and higher then others, as their Wings are made: So some run nimbler then others, according as their Limbs are made; and some swim glider then others, according as their Fins are made. But Man surpasses the shape of all other Creatures; because he hath a part, as it were, of every shape. But the same motion, and the same matter without the shape, could not give such External Properties; since all Internal Properties are wrought out of dull matter. So as it is their shapes, joyned with such motions proper thereunto, that giveth strength, and Agileness. But the Internal Qualities may be alike in every figure; because Rational Spirits work not upon dull matter, but figures themselves.
Chap. 31. The Visible Motion in Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals.
The external motions of Animals are, running, turning, winding, tumbling, leaping, jumping, shoving, throwing, darting, climbing, creeping, drawing, heaving, lifting, carrying, holding, or staying, piercing, digging, flying, swimming, diving. The Internal motion, is, contriving, directing, examining, comparing, or judging, contemplating, or reasoning, approving or disapproving, resolving. From whence arise all the Passions, and several Dispositions. These, and the like, are the visible Internal motions in Animals. The Internal motions of Vegetables, and Minerals, are in operation; As, contracting, dilating; which is Attractive, Retentive, Digestive, Expulsive. The Vegetables External motion, is, increasing, decreasing, that is, enlarging, or lasting; although there may be matter not moving, yet there is no matter, which is not moved.
Chap. 32. Of the Working of several Motions of Nature.
Motions do work according as they finde
Matter, that’s fit, and proper for each kinde.
Sensitive Spirits work not all one way,
But as the matter is, they cut, carve, lay.
Joyning together Matter, solid Light,
And build and form some figures streight upright;
Or make them bending, and so jutting out:
And some are large, and strong, and big about.
And some are thick, and hard, and close unite;
Others are flat, and low, and loose, and light.
But when they meet with matter, fine, and thin,
Then they do weave, as Spiders when they spin:
All that is woven is soft, smooth, thin things,
As flowry Vegetables, and Animal skins.
Observe the Grain of every thing, you’l see,
Like inter-woven Threads lye evenly.
And like to Diaper, and Damask wrought,
In several works, that for our Table’s bought.
Or like to Carpets which the Persian made,
Or Sattin smooth, which is the Florence Trade.
Some matter they ingrave, like Ring, and Seal,
Which is the stamp of Natures Common-weal.
‘Tis Natures Armes, where she doth print
On all her Works, as Coin that’s in the Mint.
Some several sorts they joyn together glu’d.
As matter solid, with some that’s fluid.
Like to the Earthly ball, where some are mixt
Of several sorts, although not fixt.
For though the Figure of the Earth may last
Longer then others; yet at last may waste.
And so the Sun, and Moon, and Planets all,
Like other Figures, at the last may fall.
The Matter’s still the same, but motion may
Alter it into Figures every way:
Yet keep the property, to make such kinde
Of Figures fit, which Motion out can finde.
Thus may the Fgures change, if Motion hurls
That Matter of her wayes, for other Worlds.
Of the Minde.
There is a degree of stronger Spirits then the sensitive Spirits: *as it were the Essence of Spirits; as the Spirit of Spirits, This is the Minde, or Soul of Animals. For as the sensitive Spirits are a weak knowledg, so this is a stronger knowledge. As to similize them, I may say, there is as much difference betwixt them, as Aqua Fortis, to ordinary Vitriol. These Rational Spirits, as I may call them, work not upon dull matter, as the Sensitive Spirits do; but onely move in measure, and number, which make Figures; which Figures are Thoughts, as Memory, Understanding, Imaginations, or Fancy, and Remembrance and Will. *These degrees are visible to us.
Thus these Spirits moving in measure, casting, and placing themselves into Figures make a Consort, and Harmony by Numbers.
Where the greater Quantity, or Number, are together of* those rational spirits, the more variety of Figure is made by their several motions, they dance several dances according to their Company. *Dancing is a measur’d Motion.
Chap. 34. Of their several Dances, or Figures.
What Object soever is presented unto them by the senses, they strait dance themselves into that figure; this is Memory. And when they dance the same figure without the help of the outward object, this is Remembrance, when they dance the figures of their own invention, (as I may say) then that is imagination or Fancie. Understanding is, when they dance perfectly (as I may say) not to misse the least part of those figures that are brought through the senses. Will is to choose a dance, that is to move as they please, and not as they are perswaded by the sensitive spirits. But when their motion and measures be not regular, or their quantity or numbers sufficient to make the figures perfect, then is the minde weak and infirme, (as I may say) they dance out of time and measure. But where the greatest number of these, or quantity of these Essences are met, and joyn’d in the most regular motion, there is the clearest understanding, the deepest Iudgement, the perfectest knowledge, the finest Fancies, the more Imagination, the stronger memory, the obstinatest will.
But somtimes their motions may be regular; but society is so small, so as they cannot change into so many several figures: then we say he hath a weak minde, or a poor soul. But be their quantity or numbers few or great, yet if they move confusedly, and out of order, we say the minde is distracted. And the reason the minde, or soul is improveable, or decayable, is, that the quantity or numbers are increaseable, or decreaseable, and their motions regular, and irregular,
A Feaver in the Body is the same motion among the sensitive spirits, as madnesse is in the minde amongst the rational Spirits. So likewise pain in the Body is like those motions, that make grief in the minde. So pleasure in the body is the like motions, as make delight, and joy in the minde, all Convulsive motions in the Body, are like the motions that cause Fear in the minde. All Expulsive motions amongst the rational spirits, are a dispersing their society; As Expulsity in the Body, is the dispersing of dull matter by the sensitive spirits.
All Drugs have an Opposite motion to the matter they work on, working by an expulsive motion; and if they move strongly, having great quantity of spirits together in a little dull matter, they do not onely cast out superfluous matter, but pull down the very materials of a figure. But all Cordials have a Sympathetical motion to the matter they meet, giving strength by their help to those spirits they finde tired: (as one may say) that it is to be over-power’d by opposite motions in dull Matter.
Chap. 35. The Sympathy, and Antipathy of Spirits.
Pleasure, and delight, discontent, and sorrow, which is Love, and hate, is like light, and darknesse; the one is a quick, equal, and free motion; the other is a slow, irregular, and obstructed motion. When there is the like motion of Rational Spirits in opposite figures, then there is a like understanding, and disposition. Just as when there is the like Motion in the sensitive spirits; then there is the like constitution of body. So when there is the like quantity laid in the same Symmetry, then the figures agree in the same proportions, and Lineaments of Figures.
The reason, that the rational spirits in one Figure, are delighted with the outward form of another Figure, is, that the motions of those sensitive Spirits, which move in that figure, agree with the motion of the rational spirits in the other. This is love of beauty; And when the sensitive motions alter in the figure of the body, and the beauty decayes, then the motion of rational spirits alter, and the love of godlinesse ceases. If the motion of the rational spirits are crosse to the motion of the sensitive spirits, in opposite figures, then it is dislike. So if the motion be just crosse and contrary, of the rational spirits in opposite figures, it is hate; but if they agree, it is love.
But these Sympathies, which are made only by a likenesse of motions without an intermixture, last not long; because those spirits are at a distance, changing their motion without the knowledge, or consent of either side. But the way that the rational spirits intermix, is, through the Organs of the body, especially the eyes, and Eares, which are the common doors, which let the spirits out, and in. For the vocal, and verbal motion from the mouth, carry the spirits through the eares down to Heart, where love and hate is lodged. And the spirits from the eyes issue out in Beams, and Raies; as from the Sun, which heat, or scorch* the heart, which either raise a fruitful crop of love, making the ground fertile, or dries it so much, as makes it insipid, that nothing of good will grow there, unlesse stinking weeds of Hate: But if the ground be fertile, although every Crop is not so rich, as some, yet it never grows barren, unlesse they take out the strength with too much kindnesse; As the old proverb, they kill with too much kindnesse; which murther is seldom committed. But the rational spirits** are apt to take Surfet, as well as sensitive spirits, which makes love, and Good-will, so often to be ill rewarded, neglected, and disdain’d.
*Scorching is, when the Motioh is too quick.
**That is, when there come so many spirits, as they disagree. pressing upon one another.
Chap. 36. The Sympathy of Sensitive, and Rational spirits in one Figure.
There is a strong Sympathy, and agreement, or Affection (as I may say) betwixt the rational spirits, and the sensitive spirits joyned in one figure: like Fellow-labourers that assist one another, to help to finish their work. For when they disagree, as the rational spirits will move one way sometimes, and the sensitive spirits another; that is, when reason strives to abate the appetite of the Senses; yet it is by a loving direction, rather to admonish them by a gentle contrary motion for them to imitate, and follow in the like motions; yet it is, as they alwayes agree at last; Like the Father and the Son. For though the father rules by command, and the Son obeies through obedience, yet the father out of love to his son, as willing to please him, submits to his delight, although it is against his liking;* So the rational spirits oftimes agree with the motions of the sensitive spirits, although they would move another way.
*Those degrees that are neerest, have the greatest Sympathy
Chap. 37. The Sympathy of the Rational and Sensitive Spirits, to the Fgure they make, and inhabit.
All the External motion in a Figure, is, by the sensitive spirits; and all the internal, by the rational spirits: and and when the rational and sensitive spirits, disagree in opposite figures, by contrary motion, they oft war upon one another; which to defend, the sensitive Spirits and rational spirits, use all their force, and power in either Figure; to defend, or to assault, to succour, or to destroy, through an aversion made by contrary motions in each other.
Now the rational spirits do not onely choose the materials for their defence, or assault, but do direct the sensitive spirits in the management thereof; and according to the strength of the spirits of either side, the victory is gain’d, or lost. If the Body be weak, there is like sensitive spirit, if the direction be not advantagious, there is lesse rational spirit. But many times the Alacrity of the rational and sensitive spirits, made by moving in a regular motion, overcoms the greater numbers, being in a disordered motion. Thus what is lost by Scarcity, is regain’d by Conformity and Vnity.
Chap. 38. Pleasure, and Pain.
All Evacuations have an expulsive motion; If the Expulsive motion is regular, ‘tis Pleasure, if irregular, ‘tis pain. Indeed, all Irregular and crosse motion, is Pain; all regular motion is pleasure, and delight, being Harmony of Motion, or a discord of Motion.
Chap. 39. Of the Minde.
Imagine the rational Essence, or spirits, like little spherical Bobdies of Quick-silver several ways* placing themselves in several figures, sometimes moving in measure, and in order: and sometimes out of order this Quick-silver to be the minde, and their several postures made by motion, the passions and affections; or all that is moving in a minde, to expresse those several motions, is onely to be done by guesse, not by knowledge, as some few will I guesse at Love is, when they move in equal number, and even measure. Hate is an opposite motion: Fear is, when those small bodies tumble on a heap together without order. Anger is, when they move without measure, and in no uniform Figure. Inconstancy is, when they move swiftly several wayes. Constancy is a circular motion, doubt, and suspicion, and jealousie, are when those small bodies move with the odd numbers. Hope is when those small bodies move like wilde-Geese, one after another. Admiration is, when those Spherical bodies gather close together, knitting so, as to make such a circular figure; and one is to stand for a Center or point in the midst. Humility is a creeping motion. Joy is a hopping, skipping motion. Ambition is a lofty motion, as to move upwards, or** higher then other motions. Coveting, or Ambition is like a flying motion, moving in several Figures like that which they covet for; if they covet for Fame, they put themselves into such Figures, as Letters do, that expresse words, which words are such praises as they would have, or such Figure as they would have Statues cut, or Pictures drawn: But all their motion which they make, is according to those Figures with which they sympathize and agree: besides, their motion and figures are like the sound of Musick; though the notes differ, the cords agree to make a harmony: so several Symmetries make a perfect Figure, several figures make a just number, and several quantities or proportions make a just weight, and several Lines make an even measure: thus equal may be made out of Divisions eternally, and infinitely. And because the figures and motions of the infinite Spirits which they move and make are infinite, I cannot give a final description: besides, their motion is so subtle, curious, and intricate, as they are past finding out.
Some Natural motions worke so curious fine,
None can perceive, unlesse an Eie divine.
*Like Chessmen, Table-men, Nine-pins, or the like.
**I say higher for expressions sake.
Chap. 40. Of Thinking, or the Minde, and Thoughts
One may think, and yet not of any particular thing; that is, one may have sense, and not thoughts: For thoughts are when the minde takes a particular notice of some outward Object, or inward Idea; But Thinking is onely a sense without any particular notice. As for example; Those that are in a great fear, and are amazed, the minde is in confus’d sense, without any particular thoughts: but when the minde is out of that amaze, it fixes it self on Particulars, and then have thoughts of past danger; but the minde can have no particular thought of the Amaze; for the minde cannot call to minde that which was not. Likewise when we are asleep, the Minde is not out of the Body, nor the motion that makes the sense of the minde ceast, which is Thinking; but the motion that makes the thoughts therein work upon particulars. Thus the minde may be without thoughts, but thoughts cannot be without the minde: yet thoughts go out of the minde very oft, that is, such a motion to such a thing is ceast; and when that motion is made again, it returns. Thus thinking is the minde, and thoughts the effect thereof: Thinking is an equal motion without a figure, or, as when we feel Heat, and see no fire.
Chap. 41. Of the Motions of the Spirits.
If it be, as probably it is, that all sensitive spirits live in dul matter; so rational spirits live in sensitive spirits, according to the shape of those Figures that the sencitive spirits form them.
The rational spirits by moving several ways, may make several kindes of knowledge, and according to the motions of the sensitive spirits in their several figures they make, though the spirits may be the same, yet their several motions may be unknown to each other. Like as a point, that writes upon a Table-book, which when the Letter that was 〈◊〉 thereon, is rub’d out, the Table is as plain, as if there were never any letter thereon; but though the letters are out, yet the Tablebook, and in Pen remain. So although this Motion is gone, the spirit, and matter remain; But if those spirits make other kindes of motions, like other kinds of Letters, or Language, those Motions understand not the first, nor the first understands not them, being as several Languages. Even so it may be in a sound; for that kinde of knowledge the Figure had in the sound, which is an alteration of the motion of the rational spirits, caus’d by an alteration of the motion of the sensitive spirits in dull matter: And by these disorderly motions, other motions are rub’d out of the Table-book, which is the matter that was moved. But if the same kinde of letters be writ in the same place again; that is, when the spirits move in the same motion, then the same knowledg is in that figure, as it was before; the other kinde of knowledge, which was made by other kinde of motion, is rub’d out, which several knowledge is no more known to each other, then several Languages by unlearned men. And as Language is still Language, though not understood, so knowledge is still knowledge, although not general; but if they be that we call dead, then those letters that were rubbed out, were never writ again; which is, the same knowledge never returns into the same figures. Thus the spirits of knowledge, or the knowledge of spirits, which is their several motions, may be ignorant and unacquainted with each other: that is, that some motion may not know how other motions move, not onely in several spirits, but in one and the same spirit; no more then in every Effect can know their cause: and motion is but the effect of the Spirits, which spirits are a thin subtle matter: for there would be no motion if there were no matter; for no thing can move: but there may be matter without Self-motion; but not self-motion without matter.
Matter prime knowes not what effects shall be,
Or how their several motions will agree.
Because* tis infinite, and so doth move
Eternally, in which no thing can prove.
For infinite doth not in compasse lye,
Nor hath Eternal lines to measure by.
Knowledge is there none, to comprehend
That which hath no beginning, nor no end.
Perfect knowledge comprises all can be,
But nothing can comprise Eternity.
Destiny and Fates, or what the like we call,
In infinites they no power have at all.
Nature hath Generosity enough to give
All figures ease, whilst in that Form they live;
But motion which innated matter is,
By running crosse, each several pains it gives.
*Nothing can be made or known absolute out of Infinite and Eternal.
Chap. 42. Of the Creation of the Animal Figure.
The reason,* that the sensitive spirits, when they begin to create an animal figure, the figure that is created feels it not, untill the model befinished, that is, it cannot have an animal motion, until it hath an animal figure; for it is the shape which gives it local motion? and after the Fabrick is built, they begin to furnish it with strength, and enlarge it with growth, and the rational spirit which inhabits it chooseth his room, which is the Head; And although some rational spirits were from the first creating it, yet had not such motions, as when created: besides, at first they have not so much company, as to make so much change, as to take parts, like instruments of Musick, which cannot make such division upon few strings as upon more. The next, the figure being weak, their motions cannot be strong; besides, before the figure is inlarged by growth, they want room to move in. This is the reason, that new-born Animals seem to have no knowledge, especially Man; because the spirits do neither move so strong, nor have such variety of change, for want of company to make a consort. Yet some animals have more knowledge then others, by reason of their strength, as all beasts know their dams, and run to their Dugs, and know how to suck as soon as they are born; and birds and children, and the like weak Creatures, such do not.
But the spirits of sense give them strength, and the spirits of reason do direct them to their food,* and the spirits of sense gave them Taste, and appetite, and the spirits of reason choose their meat: for all Animal Creatures are not of one dyet, for that which will nourish one, will destroy another.
*Though it may mave o-Motions, yet not the Animal Motion.
**The Figure might be without an Animal Motion, but an Animal motion cannot be untill there is an Animal Figure.
***Which food is when such Materials are not proper for such a Figure.
Chap. 43. The gathering of Spirits.
If the rational spirits should enter into a figure newly created, altogether, and not by degrees, a Childe (for example) would have as much understanding, and knowledge in the womb, or when it is new-born, as when it is inlarged and fully grown. But we finde by experience there are several sorts and degrees of knowledge and understanding, by the recourse of spirits: which is the reason, some figures have greater proportion of understanding and knowledge, and sooner then others; yet it is increased by degrees, according as rational spirits increase. Like as children, they must get strength before they can go. So Learning and experience increase rational spirits, as Food the sensitive: But experience and Learning is not alwayes tyed to the eare; for every Organ and Pore of the body is as several doors to let them in and out: For the rational spirits living with the sensitive spirits, come in, and go out with them, but not in equal proportion, but sometimes more, sometimes fewer: this makes understanding more perfect in Health then in sicknesse, and in our middle age, more then in the latter age: For in age and sicknesse there is more carried out, then brought in. This is the reason, Children have not such understanding, but their reason increaseth with their years. But the resional spirits may be similized* to a company of Good-fellows, which have pointed a meeting; and the company coming from several places, makes their time the longer ere their numbers are compleated, though many a brain is disappointed; but in some figures the rooms are not commodious to move in, made in their Creation, for want of help: those are Changelings, Innocents, or Natural Fools.
The rational spirits seem most to delight in spungie soft and liquid matter; as in the Blood, Brain, Nerves, and in Vegetables; as not onely being neerest to their own nature, but having more room to move in. This makes the rational spirits to choose the Head in Animals, for their chief room to dance their Figures in:* for the Head is the biggest place that hath the spungy Materials; thus as soon as a figure is created, those rational Spirits choose a Room.
*The greater the number is, the more variety of Motion is made, which makes Figures in the brain.
**in Animal Shapes
Chap. 44. The moving of Innate matter.
Though Motion makes knowledge, yet the spirits give motion: for those Spirits, or Essences, are the Guiders, Governours, Directers; the Motions are but their Instruments, the Spirits are the Cause, motion but an Effect therefrom: For that thin matter which is spirits, can alter the motion, but motion cannot alter the matter, or nature of those Essences, or spirits; so as the same spirits may be in a body, but not one and the same knowledge, because not the same motion, that made that knowledge. As for example; how many several Touches belong to the body? for every part of the body hath a several touch, which is a several knowledge belonging to every several part; for every several part doth not know, and feel every several touch. For when the head akes, the heel feels it not, but onely the Rational spirits which are free from the incumbrance of dull matter, they are agile, and quick to take notice of every particular touch, in, or on every part of the figure. The like motions of a pain in the Body. The like motions of the Rational spirits, we call grief in the minde; and to prove it is the like motion of the Rational Spirits to the sensitive, which makes the knowledge of it, is, when the rational Spirits are busily moved with some Fantasmes, if any thing touches the body, it is not known to the rational spirits, because the rational spirits move not in such motion, as to make a thought in the head, of the touch in the heel, which makes the thoughts to be as senselesse of that touch, as any other part of the body, that hath not such paines made by such motions. And shall we say, there is no sense in the heel, because no knowledge of it in the head? we may as well say, that when an Object stands just before an eye that is blinde, either by a contrary motion of the thoughts inward, by some deep Contemplation, or otherwise: we may as well say there is no outward object, because the rational spirits take no notice of that Object; tis not, that the stronger motion stops the lesse, or the swifter, the slower; for then the motions of the Planets wold stop one anothers course.
Some will say, what sense hath man, or any other Animal when they are dead? it may be answered, that the Fignre, which is a body, may have sense, but not the Animal; for that we call Animal, is such a temper’d matter, joyn’d in such a figure, moving with such kinde of motions; but when those motions do generally alter, that are proper to an Animal, although the matter, and Figure remain, yet it is no longer an Animal, because those motions that help it to make an Animal are ceas’d So as the Animal can have no more knowledge of what kind of sense the Figure hath (because it is no more an Animal) then an Animal, what sense dust hath. And that there is the reason, that when any part is dead in an Animal, if that those motions that belonged to the Animal, are ceas’d in that part, which alter it from being a part of the Animal, and knowes no more what sense it hath, then if a living man should carry a dead man upon his shoulders, what sense the dead man feels, whether any, or no.
Chap. 45. Of Matter, Motion, and Knowledge, or Understanding.
Whatsoever hath an innate motion, hath knowledge; and what matter soever hath this innate motion, is knowing,: but according to the several motions, are several knowledges made; for knowledge lives in motion, as motion lives in matter: for though the kind of matter never alters, yet the manner of motions alters in that matter: and as motions alter, so knowledge differs, which makes the several motions in several figures to give several knowledge. And where there is a likenesse of motion, there is a likenesse of knowledge: As the Appetite of Sensitive spirits, and the desire of rational spirits are alike motions in several degrees of matter. And the touch in the heel, or any part of the body else, is the like motion, as the thought thereof in the head; the one is the motion of the sensitive spirits, the other in the rational spirits, as touch from the sensitive spirits, for thought is onely a strong touch, and touch a weak thought. So sense is a weak knowledge, and knowledge a strong sense, made by the degrees of the spirits: for Animal spirits are stronger (as I said before) being of an higher extract (as I may say) in the Chymistry of Nature, which makes the different degrees in knowledge, by the difference in strengths and finenesse, or subtlety of matter.
Chap. 46. Of the Animal Figure.
Whatsoever hath motion hath sensitive spirits; and what is there on earth that is not wrought, or made into figures, and then undone again by these spirits? so that all matter is moving, or moved by the movers; if so, all things have sense, because all things have of these spirits in them; and if Sensitive spirits, why not rational spirits? For there is as much infinite of every several degree of matter, as if there were but one matter: for there is no quantity in infinite; for. infinite is a continued thing. If so, who knows, but Vegetables and Minerals may have some of those rational spirits, which is a minde or soul in in them, as well as man? Onely they want that Figure (with such kinde of motion proper thereunto) to expresse knowledge that way. For had Vegetables and Minerals the same shape, made by such motions, as the sensitive spirits create; then there might be wooden men, and iron beasts; for though marks do not come in the same way, yet the same marks may come in, and be made by the same motion; for the spirits are so subtle, as they can pass and repass through the solidest matter. Thus there may be as many several and various motions in Vegetables and Minerals, as in Animals; and as many internal figures made by the rational spirits; onely they want the Animal, to expresse it the Animal way. And if their knowledge be not the same knowledge, but different from the knowledge of Animals, by reason of their different figures, made by other kinde of motion on other tempered matter, yet it is knowledge. For shall we say, A man doth not know, because he doth not know what another man knows, or some higher power?
Chap. 47. What an Animal is.
An Animal is that which we call sensitive spirit; that is, a figure that hath local motion; that is, such a kinde of figure with such kinde of motions proper thereunto. But when there is a general alteration of those motions in it, then it is no more that we call Animal; because the local motion is altered; yet we cannot knowingly say, it is not a sensitive Creature, so long as the figure lasts: besides, when the figure is dissolved, yet every scattered part may have sense, as long as any kinde of motion is in it; and whatsoever hath an innate motion, hath sense, either increasing or decreasing motion; but the sense is as different as the motions therein, because those properties belonging to such a figure are altered by other motions.
Chap. 48. Of the dispersing of the Rational Spirits.
Some think, that the Rational spirits flye out of Animals, (or that Animal we call Man) like a swarm of Bees, when they like not their hives, finding some inconvenience, seek about for another habitation, or leave the body, like Rats, when they find the house rotten, and ready to fall; Or scar’d away like Birds from their Nest. But where should this Swarm, or Troop, or Flight, or Essences go, unlesse they think this thin matter is an Essence, evaporates to nothing?
As I have said before, the difference of rational spirits, and sensitive spirits, is, that the sensitive spirits make figures out of dull matter: The rational spirits put themselves into figure, placing themselves with number, and measure; this is the reason when Animals die, the External Form of that Animal may be perfect, and the Internal motion of the spirits quite alter’d; yet not absent, not dispers’d untill the Annihilating of the External Figure: thus it is not the matter that alters, but the Motion and Form.
Some Figures are stronger built then others, which makes them last longer: for some, their building is so weak, as they fall as soon as finished; like houses that are built with stone, or Timber, although it might be a stone-house, or timber-house, yet it may be built, not of such a sort of Stone, or such a sort of Timber.
Chap. 49. Of the Senses.
The Pores of the skin receive touch, as the eye light, the eare sound, the nose scent, the tongue tast. Thus the spirits passe, and repasse by the holes, they peirce through the dull matter, carrying their several burthens out, and in, yet it is neither the Burthen, nor the Passage that makes the different sense, but the different motion; (*) for if the motion that coms through the Pores of the Skin, were as the motions which come from the Eye, Ear, Nose, Mouth, then the body might receive sound, light, scent, Tast, all other as it doth touch.
*To prove that it is the several Motion, is that we shall have the same sense in our sleep, either to move pleasure or feel pain.
Chap. 50. Of Motion that makes Light.
If the same motion that is made in the Head did move the Heel, there would appear a Light to the Sense of that part of the figure; unlesse they will make such matter as the Brain to be infinite, and onely in the head of an Animal.
Chap. 51. Opticks.
There may be such motion in the Brain, as to make Light, although the Sun never came there to give the first motion: for two opposite motions may give a light by Reflection, unlesse the Sun, and the Eye have a particular Motion from all Eternity: As we say an Eternal Monopolor of such a kinde of Motion as makes Light.
Chap. 52. Of Motion, and Matter.
Why may not Vegetables have Light, Sound, Taste, Touch, as well as Animals, if the same kinde of motion moves the same kinde of matter in them? For who knows, but the Sap in Vegetables may be of the same substance, and degree of the Brain: And why may not all the senses be inherent in a figure, if the same Motion moves the same matter within the figure, as such motion without the figure?
Chap. 53. Of the Brain.
The Brain in Animals is like Clouds, which are sometimes swell’d full with Vapour, and sometimes rarified with Heat, and mov’d by the sensitive spirits to several Objects, as the clouds are mov’d by the Wind to several places. The Winds seem to be all Spirits, because they are so agile, and quick.
Chap. 54. Of Darknesse. To prove that Darknesse hath particular motions which make it, as well as motion makes light, is that when some have used to have a light by them while they sleep, will, as soon as the light goeth out, awake; for if Darknesse had no motion, it would not strike upon the Opick Nerve. But as an equal motion makes light, and a perturb’d motion makes colour, which is between Light and darknesse: So darknesse is an Opposite Motion to those motions that make light; for though light is an equal motion, yet it is such a kinde, or sort of Motion.
Chap. 55. Of the Sun.
Why may not the Sun be of an higher Extract then the rational spirits, and be like Glasse, which is a high Extract in Chymistry, and so become a (*) shining body? If so sure it hath a great knowledge; for the Sun seems to be composed of pure spirits, without the mixture of dull matter; for the Motion is quick, and subtle, as we may finde by the effect of the light, and heat. *Like glasse.
Chap. 56. Of the Clouds.
The Clouds seem to be of such spungy, and porous Matter, as the Rain, and Aire, like the sensitive spirits that form, and move it, and the Sun the Rational Spirit to give them knowledge; And as moist Vapours from the Stomack rise, and gathering in the Brain, flow through the eyes: so do the Clouds send forth, as from the Brain, the Vapours which do rise in showres.
Chap. 57. Of the Motion of the Planets.
The Earth, Sun, Moon, the rest of Planets all
Are mov’d by that, we Vital Spirits cal.
And like to Animals, some move more slow,
And other some by quicker motion go.
And as some Creatures by their shapes do flye,
Some swim, some run, some creep, some riseth high
So Planets by their shapes about do winde,
All being made, like Circles, round we finde.
Chap. 58. The Motion of the Sea.
The Sea’s more quick, then fresher waters are,
The reason is, more Vital spirits are there.
And as the Planets move still round about,
So Seas do ebb and flow both in and out.
As Arrows flye up, far as strength them lend,
And then for want of strength do back descend:
So do the Seas in ebbes run back again,
For want of strength, their length for to maintain
But when they ebb, and flow, at certain times,
Is like the Lungs that draw, and breath out wind.
Just so do Seas draw back and then do flow,
As constant as the Lungs do to and fro:
Alwayes in motion never lying still,
The empty place they leave, turn back to fill.
We may as well inquire of Nature, why Animals breath in such a space of Time, as the Seas ebb and flow in such a space of Time.
An EPISTLE To CONDEMNING READERS.
Many perchance will laugh in scorn at my opinion, and ask what reason I have to think those things I have described should be made with such a kinde of Motion, my answer is, that I guess by the forms, I mean the figures, or shapes, what the motion may be to produce them; for I see the figure of a four leg’d Creature hath other motions then two legged Creatures, or then those Creatures that have no legs; and I see some shape Creatures that can flee, by reason of their figures, which is made proper to produce that kinde of motion; for those that are not made so, cannot do so. By this I think it probable that Internal motions, are after the manner of External motions; for we may guess at the cause by the effects, so by the figures of Snow, Frost, Hail, Rain, Vapor, and the like, we may guesse at other Internal, or external motions, that produced their External figures, or alterations, and by the effects of light, darknesse, heat, cold, moisture, what manner of motions produced them; wherefore I know no reason why any should condemn my opinions. But the custom of their breeding in the Schools of Aristotle, and Socrates, and the rest of ancient Authors, or else they consider not my opinions enough; for if they did, they might see as much probability for mine, as any of their opinions; For though in natural Philosophy there may be many touches found out by experiences, and experiments, yet the Study is onely conjecturally, and built upon probabilities, and until probabilities be condemned by absolute and known truth, let them have a place amongst the rest of probabilities, and be not so partial to contradict, as to be unjust to me, take not away the right of my place because young; for though age ought to have respect, yet not so as to do youth wrong, but I hope my new born opinions will be nourished in Noble and learned Schools, and bred up with industrious Students; but howsoever, I delight my self, for next to the finding out of truthes, the greatest pleasure in Study, is, to finde out probabilities. I make no question but after Ages will esteem this work of mine, but what soever is new, is not received at the first with that good acceptation, by reason it is utterly unknown unto them, and a newnesse, and an unacquaintednesse makes the ignorance, but when time hath made acquaintance, and a right understanding, and a right understanding will make a friendship betwixt Fame and my Book.
Matter, Figure, and Motions, are the gods that Create fortune; For fortune is nothing in it self but various motions gathered, or drawn to a point, which point man onely thinks it fixt upon him, but he is deceived, for it fixes upon all other things; for if any thing comes, and rubs off the bark of a tree, or breaks the tree, it is a miss-fortune to that tree, and if a house be built in such a place, as to shelter a tree from great storms, or cold weather, it were good fortune to that tree, and if a beast be hurt it is a miss-fortune to that beast, or bird, and when a beast, or bird, is brought up for pleasure, or delight, and not to work or be imprisoned, it is a good fortune to that beast, or bird; but as I said before fortune is onely various motions, drawn to a point, and that point that comes from crosse motions, we call bad fortune, and those that come from Sympathetical motions we call good fortune, and there must needs be Antipathetical Motions as well as Sympathetical Motions, since Motions are so various. But man, and for all that I know, all other things, are governed by outward Objects, they rule, and we obey; for we do not rule and they Obey, but every thing is led like dogs in a string, by a stronger power,* but the outward power being invisible, makes us think, we set the rules, and not the outward Causes, so that we are governed by that which is without us, not that which is within us; for man hath no power over himself. *Natural power.
Chap. 60. Of time and Nature.
No question but there is a time in Nature, for time is the Variation of Nature, and nature is a producing Motion a multiplying figure, an endlesse measure, a quantilesse substance, an indefaisable matter.
Chap. 61. Of Matter, Motion, and Figure.
As I said before in my first part of my Book, that there is no first Matter, nor no first Motion, because Eternal, and Infinite, yet there could be no Motion, without matter; for Matter is the cause, Motion but the effect of Matter, for there could be no motion unlesse there were Matter to be moved; But there might be Matter, and Figure, without Motion, as an infinite, and eternal dull lump; For I see no reason, but infinite might be without running forward, or circle-wayes, if there were not several degrees of the onely Matter, wherein Motion is an Infinite Eternal effect of such a degree. Neither is it nonsense to say, Figure is the effect of Matter; for though there is no Matter without Figure, yet there could be no figure without Matter, wherefore Matter is the prime cause of Figure, yet there could be no figure without matter, wherefore matter is the prime cause of figure, but not figure of matter, for figure doth not make matter, but matter figure, no more then the creature can make the Creator; but a creature may make a figure. Thus although there is no first matter, yet matter is the first cause of motion and figure, and all effects.
Although they are as infinite and Eternal, as matter it self, and when I say Matter prime, I speak for distinction sake, which is the onely Matter?
The innated Matter, is the soul of Nature.
The dull part of Matter, the Body.
And the infinite figures, are the infinite form of Nature.
And the several motions are the several actions of nature.
Chap. 62. Of Causes, and effects.
As I have said before the effects are infinite, and eternal as the Causes, because all effects lie in matter and motion, indeed in matter onely; for motion is but the effect of matter.
Wherefore all particular figures although dssiolvable yet is inherent in the matter, and motion, as for example, if a man can draw the picture of a man, or any thing else, although he never draws it, yet the Art is inherent in the man, and the picture in the Art as long as the man lives, so as long as there is matter, and motion, which was from all Eternity, and shall be eternally; the effect will be so.
Chap. 63. Whether motion is a thing, or nothing, or can be Annihilated
Some have opinion that Motion is nothing, but to my reason it is a thing; for if matter, is a substance, a substance is a thing, and the motion, and matter being unseparablely, united, makes it but one thing.
For as there could be no motion without such a degree, or extract of matter so there could be no such degree or extract* of matter without motion, thus motion is a thing. But by reason particular motions leave moving in such matters and figures, shall we say they are deceased, dead, or become nothing; but say some, motions are accidents, and accidents are nothing; but I say, all accidents live in substance, as all effects in the causes, say some, when a man for example shakes his hand, and when he leaves shaking, whether is that motion gone (say others) no where, for that particular motion ceaseth to be, say they. *I say extract. because it is the essence of matter.
I answer, that my reason tells me, it is neither fled away, nor ceased to be, for it remains in the hand, and in that matter that created the hand, that is in that, and the like innated matter, that is in the hand. But some will say, the hand never moves so again, but I say the motion is never the lesse there, they may as well say, when they have seen a Chest full of Gold, or the like, and when their eyes are shut, or that they never see it more, that the Gold doth not lie in the Chest, although the Gold may lie there eternally, or if they should see it again, say it is not the same Gold. So likewise particular motions are, but shewed, not lost, or Annihilated: or say one should handle a vessel often, that every time you handle the vessel, it is not the same touch, vessel, or hand, and if you never touch the vessel again, that the hand, vessel, or touch is annihilated.
But particular motion, as the vessels, or hand is but used, not annihilated, for particular motions can be no more annihilated, then particular figures that are dissolved and how, in reason can we say in reason particular figures are Annihilated, when every part and parcel, grain, and atome, remains in infinite matter, but some will say, when a house: for example, is pull’d down, by taking asunder the materials, that very figure of that house is annihilated; but my opinion is, that it is not, for that very figure of that house remains in those materials, and shal do eternally although those materials were dissolved into Atoms, and every Ato me in a several place, part, or figure & though infinite figures should be made by those materials by several dissolutions and Creations, yet those infinites would remain in those particular materials eternally, and was there from all eternity; And if any of those figures be rebuilt, or Created again, it is the same figure it was.
So likewise the motion of the hand which I said for example, if the same hand moves after the same manner, it is the same motion that moved the hand before; so it may make infinite repetitions; thus one and the same motion may move eternally, and rest from moving, and yet have a being.
Chap. 64. Of Motions.
There are millions of several motions which agree to the making of each figure, and millions of several motions are knit together; for the general motion of that are figure, as if every figure had a Common-Weale of several Motions working to the subsistence of the figure, and several sorts of motions, like several sorts of Trades hold up each other; some as Magistrates, and rulers; others as Train-bands, as souldiers; some make forts, and dig trenches; some as Merchants that traffick; some as Sea-men, and Shipmasters; some that labour and and work, as some cut and carve; Others paint, and ingrave; some mix, and temper, joyn, and inlay, and glue together; some form, and build; some cast in moulds, and some makes moulds to cast; some work rough-casts; some pollish and refine; some bear burthens, some take off burthens, some digg, some sowe, some plough, some set, some graft, some plant, some gather, some reap, some sift, some thrash, some grind, some knead, some bake, some beat, some spin, some weave, some sewe together, some wind and twist, some create, and others dissolve, and millions of millions of motions, but as we see external, so we may imagine are internal motions.
Chap. 65. Many motions go to the producing of one thing, or to one end.
For there are millions of several motions go to the making of one figure, or in mixing, as I may say, of several degrees of the dull part of matter, as I will give one for example in grosse external motions, where I will describe it by digestive motions, which is to fit parts, and to distribute parts to several places proper to the work. For digestive motions, there are many several sorts, or kinds of motions mixt together, as for example, a piece of meat is to be boyled, or the like, some motions cut fuel, and others take it up, others carrie, other lay down in a Chimnie, or the like place, others put fire, others kindle it, and make it burn, others take mettle and melt it, others cast such a figure as a pot, others bring the pot, others set it over the fire, others take up water, others carry that water to the pot, others put that water into the pot, others kill a sheep, others divide it into parts, others put it a part into the pot. Thus a piece of meat cannot be boyled without all these motions, and many more, which would be too tedious to relate, for I could have inlarged in three times as many more, only to boyl a piece of meat, and if there be so many several motions in our grosse sense in such things as these, then what is there in infinite Nature, yet for all these infinite varieties of motions, as I said before, I cannot perceive but six ground-motions, or fundamental motions, from whence all changes come, which are these attractive motions, contracting motions, retentive motions, dilative motions digestive motions, and expulsive motions; likewise, although there be infinite kindes, and different figures, yet the ground-work, from whence ariseth all the veriety, is but from four figures; as Circular, Triangular, Cupe, and Paralels. And as there are infinite changes of motions, amongst the sensitive innated matter, working on the dull parts of matter, so there are infinite changes of motions in the rational innated matter, making infinite kinds of knowledge, and degrees of knowledge, and understanding, and as there are infinite changes of motion, so there are infinite effects, and every produced effect, is a producing effect, and effects which effect produce effects, and the onely matter is the cause of all effects, for the several degrees of onely matter, is the effect of onely matter, and motion is the effect of some sorts of the degrees of onely matter, and varieties are the the effects of matter and motion, and life is the effect of innate matter; and knowledge the effect of life.
Chap. 66. Of the six principal motions.
As I have said, there are infinite Contractions, Atractions, Retentions, Dilations, digestions, and expulsions, and to explain my self to my readers as well as I can, unlesse they should mistake me, I will here describe, although after a grosse way; yet according to my capacity. A few of the infinite variety of motions, first there are five, or six principal motions, from whence infinite changes are made, or produced, as from Contractions, Attractions, Retentions; these three principal motions do in some kinde simpathize to each other; and dilations, and expulsions do also sympathize to each other, but digestions is a mixt motion taking part of all, but I divide them into six parts, for distinction; Now to treat of them severally, we must make an imaginary Circumference, and Center.
Then first for Attracting motions, which is to draw towards the Center, that is, to draw to a lesse compasse, as to draw towards a point, yet Atractions draw not alwayes after one and the same manner, for some motions draw after them, as horses do Coaches, Carts, sleds and the like, but after several* fashions, forms, and biasses and several motions, in those motions some slow, some quick, some crosse, some even. Again, some times Attractive motions draw, as if one should pull in a line, or draw in a net, some slope-wayes, some straight wayes; some square wayes, some round wayes; and millions of the like varieties, in this sort of motion, yet all Attracting motion. *This for example.
Secondly, Contracting motions which move after another manner; for though both these sorts of motions, are to bring towards a point, yet Contraction me thinks, strives more against Vacuum, then Attraction, gathering all into a firm body, stopping up all porous passages, shutting out space, and gathering in matter, as close as it can; indeed Attractions are but in the way to Contractions, as Dilations to expulsions; but this sort of motions is, surfling, pleating, folding, binding, knitting, twisting, griping, pressing, tying, and many the like, and after several manners, or fashions.
Thirdly, Retention is to hold, or to stay from wandring, to fix, as I may 〈◊〉, the matter to one place, as if one should stick, or glue parts together.
Fourthly, Dilations are to inlarge, as to spend, or extend, striving for space, or compasse; it is an incroaching motion, which will extend its bounds as far as it can, this sort of motion is melting, flowing, streaming, spreading, smoothing, stretching, and millions of the like.
Fiftly, Expulsive, is a motion that shuns all unity, it strives against solidity, and uniformity, it disperses every thing it hath power on; this sort of motion, is, breaking, dissolving, throwing about.
Sixthly, Digestive motions, are the creating motions, carrying about parts to parts, and fitting, and matching, and joyning parts together, mixing and tempering the matter for proper uses.
Chap. 67. Of Exterior Motions produced from the six principle Motions.
I Will here repeat some of the varieties of grosse exterior* motions, such as are visible to our grosser senses, to cleer my readers imaginary motion; Some motions draw, as horses draw Coaches, Carts, Sleds, Harrows, or the like; others, as horses, and dogs, are led in a bridle, or string. *Drawing motions.
Some, as beasts draw their prey to the Den moving backwards.
Some draw up lines shorter, and thicker, and some draw in circular lines, sloping lines, and square lines.
Other sorts of drawing, some straight lines; some square lines, round lines, slope lines, some motions draw up; some draw down, some draw side-wayes; some crosse, some regular; Other motions do, as if one should drive, or shove a solid* substance before them, the varieties of these motions. *Driving motions.
Some are, as if a man should drive a wheel-barrow, or rowling of barrels, or driving a plough, or a rowler, and millions the like.
Others are, as if beasts and men were to carry burthens,* some bearing burthens on their back; some on their head; some in in their mouth; some in their arms; some in their hands; some under their armes; some on their thighs; some on their stings, as Bees do, and millions the like, and every one of those burthens, have several motions thereto, and yet all but bearing motions. *Bearing motions.
Other sorts of motions, as throwing the bar, pitching the* bar, throwing a ball, striking a ball, throwing a bowl, flinging a dart, darting a dart, throwing upward, downward, straight-out, side-wayes, and all these several manners, is but a throwing motion. *Throwing, striking, darting motions.
Leaping, running, hopping, trotting, gallopping, climing, clamering,* flying, and infinite others, yet all is but a lofty motion. *Lofty motions.
Diving, dipping, mowing, reaping, or shearing, rowling, creeping,* crawling, tumbling, traveling, running, and infinite the like examples may be given of the varieties of one and the same kinde of motion. *Low motions.
Chap. 68. Of double motions at one and the same time, on the same matter.
As for example; spinning flax, or the like is drawn long, and small, twisted hard, and round, and at one time.
Again, a bowl runs round-way, and yet straight-out at one time.
A shuttle-cock spins about in a straight line.
The winde spreads, and yet blows straight-out at one and the same time.
Flame ascends Circular, and many the like examples may be given.
Chap. 69. Of the several strengths.
Although there be infinite strengths of Motion, yet not to all sorts of figures, nor to all degrees of matter; for some figures move slow, others move swift, according to the Nature of the shape, or the interior strengths, or the degree, or quantity of innated matter, that created them; for though every degree of innated matter, is of one and the same strength, yet there are different degrees; but onely two degrees are subject to our weak sense, as the innate minde, and the innated body, which we call sense and reason, which sense and reason, may be in every thing, though after different manners, but we have confined sense, onely to animal kinde, and reason onely to mankinde; but if the innated matter is in the dull parts of matter, as the life of the body, then there is no part that hath not sense and reason whether creating or created, dissolving, or dissolved, though I will not say that every creature enjoys life alike, so every figure is not innated alike, for some is weaker innated, and some stronger, either by quantity or degree, yet every figure is innated; for it is innated matter that creates, and dissolves figures, yet the innated matter works according to the several degrees, and tempers, of the dull part of matter, and to such properties, and figures, and figures properties, and proper figures, that is, motion doth form the onely matter, into figures, yet motion cannot alter the Entity of only matter, but motion can, and doth alter the interior, and exterior figures, and though the several degrees of matter may be placed, and replaced in figures, yet the nature of the matter cannot be altered.
Chap. 70. The creations of Figures, and difference of Motions.
Those motions that are proper to create figures, are different from those motions that dissolve them, so that sympathetical internal motions, do not onely assist one another, but Sympathetical external Motions, and Sympathetical figures; this is the reason that from two figures, a third, or more is created, by the way of procreation; yet all figures are created, after one and the same kinde of way; yet not after one and the same manner of way, as Vegetables, Minerals, and some sorts of Animals, as such as are bred from that we call corruption, as some sorts of worms, and some sorts of flies, and the like;* Yet are they created by the procreation of the heat, and moisture, the same way are plants that grow wilde produced, but those that are sown or set, although they are after one and the same kinde of way, yet not after the same* manner; for the young vegetables, were produced from the seeds, and the earth, which were sowed, or set together, and in grafts is when two different plants produce seed of mixt nature, as a Mule is produced, or the like creature, from two different Animals, which make them of mixt nature; for As there is a Sympathetical conjunction in one, and the same kinde of figure, so there is a Sympathetical conjunction in some sorts of figures; but not in all, nor to all, for that would make such a confusion in nature, as there would be no distinction, of kindes; besides, it were impossible for some kinde of figures, to make a conjunction with other kindes, being such a difference betwixt them, some from the nature of the figures, others from the shape of the figures. *Conjunction of those different motions. **First the earth bears Vegetables, and the plants bear seed, and the seed, and earth bear Vegetables again.
And Minerals are produced by the Conjunction of such Elements, which were begot by such motions, as make heat, and drought, and cold and dry. Thus all figures are created from different motions, and different degrees, of infinite onely matter; for onely matter joyns, and divides it self by self motions, and hath done so, and will do so, or must do so eternally, being its nature, yet the divisions, and substractions, joynings, and creations, are not alike, nor do they continue, or dissolve, with the like measure of time, which time is onely as in a reference to several motions.
But as I have said, there can be nothing lost in nature, Although there be infinite changes, and their changes never repeated. For say a man dies, and his figure dissolves into dust, as smal as Atoms, and is disperst so, as never to meet, and every Atome goeth to the making of several figures, and so changes infinitely, from figure, to figure, yet the figures of all these changes lie in those parts, and those parts in onely matter; so likewise several motions may cease as figures dissolve, but still those motions lies in innated matter, and each particular figure, in the generality of matter and motion, which is on the dull part, and innated part of onely matter.
Chap. 71. The Agilenesse of innated Matter:
Innated matter seems much nimbler in some works, then in other, as making Elements, and their several changes, being more porous then Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, which are more contracted, and not so easily metamorphosed, and on the thin part of dull matter, they seem much nimbler, and agil, then when they work on the grosse part of dull matter; for though the innated matter can work, but according to the strength, yet not alwayes according to that strength; for their burthens are not alwayes equal to their strength; for we see in light thin dull matter, their motions to be more swift, having lesse incumbrances, and lighter burthens, unlesse it be oposed, and stopped by the innated matter, that works in the more solid, or thicker part of dull matter, or move solid and united figures, yet many times the innated matter, that works on the thin part of dull matter, or in more porous figures, will make way through solid and thick bodies, and have the power on those that work on more grosse matter, for the innate matter that works on grosse matter, cannot resist so well, having greater burthens, nor act with that facility as the others can, whose matter is lighter, or figures more pourous; for we see many times water to passe through great rocks, and mountains, piercing and dividing their strengths, by the frequent assaults thereon, or to; yet many times the passe is kept or lost, according to the quantity of the innated matter of either side.
Chap. 72. Of external, and internal figures and Motions.
For the motions of heat and drought begets the Sun the motions of heat and moisture begets the Aire.
The motions of cold and dry, begets the earth, and the rest of the Planets, and as other motions begot them, so they begot others, and as these Elemental Planets beget in gener all figures, which we call creatures in the world; so these figures, as they are matched, beget each particular figures of several sorts; For external figures, are made by internal motions; for though Vegetables, Minerals, and Animals be internal figures, as to the globe of the World, which is the external figures to them, yet they are external figures to those which are created in them, untill such time as they are cast forth of that mould, as I may say, which they were made in, which is the womb, and the several wombs of several kinds, are several moulds, but indeed all moulds differ in their points.
Perchance this subject might be better explained, but my modest thoughts will not give my inquisitive thoughts leave to trace Natures Creations by procreation; Although I beleeve nature, and her works are pure of themselves, but ‘tis the Abuse of her works, and not the knowledge that corrupts man-kinde.
Chap. 73. Of repeating one and the same work, and of varieties.
Nature may repeat one and the same creature if she pleaseth, that is, the same motions, on the same matter, may create the same creature, by reason the same motions, and the same matter, is eternally in the body infinite: thus the Original cause of producing one and the same is eternal, by reason nothing in nature can be annihilated, and though the infinite matter is but one and the same, yet the infinite part of innated matter, moves infinite several wayes, and by reason of the diversity of motion, there is such varietie, as seldom any two creatures are alike, for motion delights in variety, not so much in the different kindes, as in the particular creatures, which makes me think that motion is bound by the nature of the matter, to make such kindes; Although it be at liberty for particulars, and yet the several kindes may be as infinite as the particulars; as for example, although motion is bound to Animal kinde, Vegetable kinde, Mineral kinde, and also to make such kinde of worlds as this is; yet motion may make infinite particular worlds, as infinite particular Animals, Vegetables, Minerals, and those infinite worlds may differ, as those kindes of Creaturs; for worlds may differ from other worlds, not onely as man from man, but as man from beast, beasts from birds, birds from fish, and so as Vegetables do; for an oak is not like a tulip, or roses; for trees are not like flowers, nor flowers like roots, nor roots like fruit, nor all flowers alike, nor all roots alike, nor all fruits alike, nor all trees, and the rest, and so for Minerals; gold is not like lead, nor a diamond like a pibble stone; so there may be infinite worlds, and infinite variety of worlds, and be all of that kinde we call worlds, yet be nothing alike, but as different, as if it were of another kinde, and may be infinite several kinds of creatures, as several sorts, that we can never imagine, nor guesse at; for we can guesse, nor imagine at no other wayes, but what our senses brought in, or our imaginations raised up, and though imaginations in nature may be infinite, and move in every particular brain after an infinite manner; yet it is but finite in every particular figure, because every particular figuse is finite, that is every particular figure comes by degrees from creation to a full growth, from a full growth to a decay, from a decay to a dissolution; but not a Annihilation, for every particular figure lies in the body infinite, as well as every particular kinde; for unlesse eternalmatter, and infinite matter, and eternal and infinite motions could be Annihilated, infinite figures wil eternally remain, although not in their whole bulk, yet in their parted pieces; for though one and the same matter may be made into other figures: yet the former figures have as much a being as the present figures, by reason the matter that was the cause of those figures hath an eternal being, and as long as the cause lasts, the effects cannot be Annihilated.
Chap. 74. Of creation, and dissolving of Nature.
The divisions, and substractions, joynings, and creations, are not alike, nor do they continue, and dissolve with the like measures of time; for some Vegetables are old, and decrepit at a day old, others are but in their prime after a hundred yeers, and so some Animals, as flies and the like, are old and decrepit at a yeer old; others, as man is but at his prime at twenty yeers, and will live a hundred yeers, if he be healthy and sound; so in the Minerals, perchance lead, or tin, or the like, is but a flie, for continuance to gold, or like a flower to an oak, then it is probable, that the Sun and the rest of the Planets, Stars, and Millions more that we know not, may be at their full strength at ten hundred thousand yeers, nay million of millions of yeers, which is nothing to eternity, or perchance, as it is likely, other figures were at full strength when matter and motion created them, and shall last until matter dissolves them. Again, it is to be observed that all Spherical figures last longest, I think it is because that figure hath no ends to ravel out at.
Chap. 75. Of Gold.
Some say that Gold is not to be altered from the figure that makes it gold, because Chymists have tried and cannot do it, but certainly that innated motion that joyns those parts, and so made it in the figure of Minerals can dissolve those parts, and make it into some figure else, to expresse an other thing; but being a 〈◊〉 solid part of dull matter then that which makes other minerals, it is longer a creating, and dissolving, then the other figures are, that are of a light or softer substance, and may be the motions that make gold, are of slower nature, so as it is caused from the hardnesse of the matter, or the slownesse of the spirit, caused by the curiosity of the work, wherein they must use more different motions then in other figures; so as it may be a thousand yeers uniting, or a thousand yeers a dispersing, a thousand, nay ten thousand; for there is no account, nor time in nature infinite, and because we last not so song as to perceive it, shall we say that Gold was eternal, and shall last eternally; so we may as well* say an Oak, that is a hundred yeers, ere it comes to full maturity, and a hundred yeers, ere it comes to be dissoved, that it was an Oak eternally, and shall be so eternally, because a flower, is created, and dissolved in two or three dayes, but the solidity of the matter, and the cūriosity in the several changes, and enterchanges of motions prolong the work, yet it is hastened, or retarded by the quantity of spirits that work therein; for when there is more, it is sooner formed, when less, longer ere it come to its figurative perfection. *Unlesse a greater power destroy it before the natural time.
Chap. 76. Of Sympathies, and Antipathies, which is to agree, or disagree, to joyn, or to crosse.
There are infinite sorts of figures, or Creatures, that have Sympathy, and infinite sorts of figures, that have Antipathies, both by their exterior, and interior motions, and some exterior Sympathie with some interior, and some interior with some exteriors, and some exterior with exteriors, and interiors with interiors, both in one and the same figure, and with one and the same kinde, and with different kinds, and with several sorts, which works various effects: and here I will treat a little of Vegetables, and Minerals with Antipathy, or Sympathies, with Animals of all Animals. First, man thinks himself to have the Supreme knowledge, but he can but think so, for he doth not absolutely know it, for thought is not an absolute knowledge but a suppositive knowledge, for there are as many several degrees of knowledge, as of innate matter which is infinite, and therefore not absolute, and as much variety of knowledge, as there is of motions, and though all innated matter is knowing, yet all innated matter is not known; this makes figures to have of each others a suppositive, but not an absolute knowledge; thus infinite makes innated matter in some kinde, a stranger to it self, yet being knowing, although not known, it makes an acquaintance with parts of it self, and being various by interchanging motions, it also loseth acquaintance; the acquaintance we call learning, invention, experience, or memory, the unknown, or not acquainted we call stupidity, ignorance, forgetfulnesse, illiterate, but by the acquaintance of experience, we come to finde the use of many things, and by the use we come to learn, and from our learning we come to practise, and by our practise we come to produce many effects, from the hidden and mystical causes, which are the effects, from the onely cause which is the onely matter, thus we come to finde the use of Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, Vegetables, Minerals, and so Animal with Animal, and we do not onely get new acquaintance; which is new experience, but we make use of our acquaintance to our own benefit, or at least we strive to do so; for it is the nature of life, which life is innated matter, to strive for preheminency,* and absolute power, that is, onely matter would rule it self, but being infinite it neither absolutely knows it self, nor can absolutely rule or govern it self, and though it be an endlesse work, yet motion which is the moving part of nature, cannot desist, because it is infinite, and eternal, thus moving matter running perpetually towards absolute power, makes a perpetual war; for infinite, and onely matter is alwayes* at strife for absolute power, for matter would have power over infinite, and infinite would have over matter, and eternity would have power over both.
Thus infinit and eternal matter joyned all, as to one is alwayes at strife in it self, yet the war is regular, not confused; For there this is a natural order, and discipline is in nature as much as cruel Tyrannie; for there is a naturall order, and discipline often-times in cruel Tyranny.
*Life is in every thing. **It is but one thing, but three words.
Chap. 77. Of different knowledge in different figures.
Certainly there are infinite several kindes, as well as infinite several sorts, and particular creatures in nature, and certainly every several kinde, nay, every several sort in every kinde. Knowledge works after a different manner; in every different figure, which different manners we call particular knowledges which works according to the figure, so infinite knowledge lies in infinite figure, and infinite figure in infinite matter, and as there are infinite degrees of matter, so there are infinite degrees of knowledge, and as there are infinite degrees of knowledge, so there are infinite degrees of motions, so there are infinite degrees of figures, and as there are infinite degrees, so there are infinite kinds, and as there are infinite kindes, so there are infinite sorts, and so infinite particulars in every sort, yet no kinde can be said to have most, or least, though lesse or more; for there is no such thing, as most or least in nature. For as I said before, there is onely different knowledge belonging to every kinde, as to Animal kinde, Vegetable kinde, Mineral kinde; and infinite more which we are not capable to know, but two particular sorts in every kinde; as for example, Man may have a different knowledge from beasts, birds, fish, worms, and the like, and yet be no wiser, or knowing then they; For different wayes in knowledge makes not knowledge more or lesse, no more then different paths inlarge one compasse of ground; nor no more then several words for one and the same thing, for the thing is the same, onely the words differ; so if a man hath different knowledge from a fish, yet the fish may be as knowing as man, but man hath not a fishes knowledge, nor a fish a mans knowledge.
Likewise some creatures may have more, and some lesse knowledge then others; yet none can be said to have most, or least; for there is no such thing as most or least in nature, nor doth the weaknesse, or imperfection in particular creatures impaire the knowledge of the kinde, or impair the* knowledge as I may say, belonging to any particular sort, nor can any one have such a supremacy of knowledge as to add to the knowledge of the kinde, or sort of kinde, as to have such a knowledge as is above the capacity of that kinde, or sort to understand. As for example, a man to know more then the nature of man is to know; for what knowledge man hath had, or can have, is in the capacity of the kinde, though not to every particular man, for though nature may work within her self; yet she cannot work beyond her self, and if there be mixe sorts of creatures, as partly man, and partly beast, partly man, and partly fish, or partly beast, and partly fish, and partly fish, and partly foul; yet although they are mixt creatures, and may have mixt knowledges, yet they are particular sorts, and different knowledges, belonging to those sorts, and though different sorts have different knowledges, yet the kinde may be of one and the same degree; that is, every several sort of creatures, in one and the same kinde, is as knowing and as wise, as another, and that which makes some creatures seem lesse perfect then others, or more knowing then others, is the advantage, or disadvantage of their 〈◊〉, which gives one creature power over another; but different Knowledg in different creatures takes advantages by turns according as it turns to it. And as there is different Knowledge, and different Kinds, and several sorts, so there is different Knowledge in different senses, in one and the same creature; for what man hath seen the interior biting motion of Gold, and burning motions of heat? yet feels them we may imagine by the touch, the interior nature of fire to be composed of sharp points, yet our sight hath no Knowledge thereof, so our sight hath the Knowledge of light; but the rest of our senses are utterly ignorant thereof; our ears have the Knowledge of sound, but our eyes are ignorant of the Knowledge thereof; thus, though our ears may be as Knowing as our eyes, and our eyes as Knowing as our ears, yet they may be ignorant of each other, I say Knowledge, for sense is Knowledg, as well as reason, onely reason is a degree above sense, or sense, a degree beneath reason.
*That is to weaken the degree.
Chap. 78. The advantages of some figures, some degrees of matter, and motions, over others.
If we do but stricktly prie into the works of nature, we shall observe, that all internal motions, are much after the manner of external motions, I mean those motions that we can perceive, by those effects, as are subject to our senses, and although for the most part the strongest motions govern the weakest, yet it is not alwayes found that they conquer the weaker; for there are infinite slights, or infinite advantages to be taken, or mist in infinite nature, some by the shapes of their figures, and some in the degrees of matter, and some in the manner of moving; for slights are just like the actions of Juglers, Vauters, or Tumblers, Wrastlers, or the like; for shapes I will give one or two for example, as a little Mouse which is but a weak creature, in comparison to an Elephant, yet the small Mouse shall overcome an Elephant, by running up through the snout, and so get into the head, and so gnaw on his brain; And a Worm is a weak creature in comparison of a man, yet if he get into the guts, it will gnaw out his bowels, and destroy that figure. So for degrees of matter, what advantage hath the innated matter, or the dull part of matter, and for motions, most often the nimbler, and agile motions, get an advantage on the stronger, if more slower, and oftener by the manner of motions; for many times a diving motion will have the better of a swimming motion, a jumping motion of a running motion, a creeping or crawling motion, of either, a darting motion of a flying motion, a crosse motion of a straight motion, a turning motion of a lifting motion, so an Attractive motion of an expulsive motion, and infinite the like, and every motion may have their advantages by turns, and then the advantages of place, and of times, as I may call it, for distinction sake, some Creatures will suppresse other creatures in the night, when the suppressers dare not appear to the supprssed in the light, a great Army shall be destroyed by a little Army, by standing in a lower patch of ground, oft by fighting at such a time of the day, when the sun shines on their faces, but it would be too long for Methusalems life, to set down examples, being infinite, but this shall serve to expresse my opinions.
Chap. 79. Of the figurative figures.
Most figures are lined, and enterlined, as I may say, for expression sake, some figures are like a set, or nest of boxes, as for example, half a dozen boxes one within another, so every of those figures hath the same figure, within one another, the outermost figure being the largest, the inmost figure the least; as for example, a man builds a house, first he builds the figure of that house with wood, as beams, and rafters and lathes; next he laies morter, then is the figure of that house in morter, then he laies bricks or stones, then there is the figure of the house in stone, and brick, then it is plaistered within the inside, then there is the figure of the house in plaister, if it be painted, then there is figure of the house in painting; so likewise an Animal, as a man, first there is the figure of a man in bones, as we may see in a Anatomie, then there is the figure of a man in flesh; thirdly there is the figure of a man in the skin, then there are many, different figures, belonging to one and the same figure, as every several part of an Animal is of a different figure, and every part hath different figures belonging thereunto; as man for example, to the hand there is the palm, the back, the fingers, the nailes, yet all makes but one hand.
So the head, there is the brain, the pia mater, the dura mater, the scul, the nose, the eyes, the fore-head, the ears, the mouth, the lips, the tongue, the chin, yet all this is but a head; likewise the head, the neck, the brest, the arms, the hands, the back, the hips, the bowels, the thighes, the legs, the feet; besides, the bones, the nerves, the muscles, the veins, the arteries, the heart, the liver, the lights, the midrif, the bladder, the kidnies, the guts, the stomacke, the brain, the marrow, the blood, the flesh, the skin, yet all these different figurative parts make but the figure of one man. So for Vegetables, the root, the sap, the peath, the bole, the bark, the branches, make but the figure of one tree; likewise every figure is different, this man is not like that man, this tree is not like that tree, for some trees are larger, or lesser, higher, or lower, more or lesse branched, crooked, or straghter, so in Animals, some are of one shape, some of another, as men, some are slender and tall; some little and low; some big and tall, others thick and low; some high-nos’d; some flat-nos’d; some thick, some thin lipt; some high fore-heads, some low, some broad, some narrow, and numbers of like examples may be given, not onely to man, but all other Animal creatures according to their shapes, that every particular in one and the same kinde, hath different figures, yet every particular kinde hath but one and the same motion, which properly and naturally belong to that Kinde of figure, as a horse to gallop, to amble, to trot, to runn, to leap, to kick, and the like; and man to lift, to carry to walk, to run, to pitch, to dig, to shut, to chop, to pull back, to thrust forward; likewise every particular part in one and the same Kinde, hath but one and the same kinde of motions, local or otherwise, and ever particular bird, hath but one, and the same kinde of motion in their flights, and in their feeding;
So beasts, every particular kinde hath but one and the same manner of motion, and feeding; so likewise all mankinde hath after one and the same Kinde of motions belonging naturally to every particular part of his body, the onely difference is in the strength, or weaknesse, their restraints or facilities but not different in manner of the movings. But to return, to the figures, I say there are different figures belonging to one and the same kinde of figure, but the ground or fundamental figures in every particular figure, are there. (As for example) a tree at first is the figure of wood, the second is such a sort of wood, as a Cedar, an Oak, an Elm, an Ash, and the like; also of such a nature of wood, some fitter to burn then to build, others that will grow but on such, or such soils, others to last longer, or die sooner, or bud and bear in such, and such seasons, some to bear fruit, others to bear none.
Likewise for Animals, the first figure is to be an Animal, that is, to have a local figure, the second figure is to be flesh,* not wood. The third is to be such a kinde of flesh as mans flesh, not bears flesh, or dogs flesh, or horse flesh, or cows flesh, and more examples may be given, then I am able to repeat, or my book to infold, but Animals and Vegetables have more different figures, belonging to every particular, figure or Kinde then Minerals, especially metals, which are as it were composed of one piece.
*Fish is a kind of flesh.
Chap. 80. Of the gloomy figures, and figures of parts, and of one piece.
Ayre is not a shining body of it self, but as the lines of light shine upon it, it is smooth, and may be aglossie body, but not a shining; for though there are infinite several sorts of brightnesse and shining, yet two I will describe.
As there are two sorts of shining figures; some that cast forth beams of light, as bright shining fire, and likewise from some sorts of stones, bones, and wood, so there are some sorts of figures that onely retain a bright shining quality in themselves, but cast forth no beams there-from; or else so weak and small, as not useful to our sight, but what is represented to us thereon, by other lights; this sort is water, metal, and vulgar stones, which perchance ayre may have such a shining body.
These shining bodies, as water, or metal, or the like, are not perceived in the dark, but when light is cast thereon, we do not onely perceive the light, but their own natural shining quality by that light.
Again, some figures have onely a glosse, which is a faint shining, like as a fained light, or an eclipsed shadow, as all the pores Vegetables, and Animals skins have; and some figures are glossy through the thinnesse, or transparentnesse, not in the nature, for by reason the figure is thin, and transparent, the light shining, though transparent doth not onely shew the light, but the light gives those figures a glosse.
Some figures, as I have said, are as it were all of one piece, as some sorts of earth, water, vapor, and ayr, which may be metamorphosed, by contracting and dilation. Others of divers pieces, and several works, as Vegetables, and Animals, wherein are joynts and knots, some parts soft, and some liquid, some firme, some hard, every part having a several figure, which varieties and contrarieties serve to the consistence, and preservation, but of one perfect figure; but Animals of all other figures have the most variety of works, and several motions.
Chap. 81. Of the dull and innated matter.
Some may say, that if there were infinite dull and in-moving matter, some of it may lie unmoved eternally. I answer, that cannot be, for as there is infinite dulnesse and solidity; so there is infinite acutenes and facility, by which I mean searching, and penetrating, which in some sense makes it equal, if there be equality in infinite, but the innating matter works not upon the dull matter, as upon a new material; for the innate matter is mixt with the dull part of matter; For the innated matter moves in the dull part of matter, and on the dull part of matter, as I have described in my first part, for the innated matter takes not fresh and new (as I may say) for distinction sake, to make a figure with; but turns the dull matter into several figures, joyning each degree as the innate matter will, or as it is proper for such a kinde of figure, for some degrees of matter will not make, I do beleeve some kinde of figures, but the dull part of matter, is not mixed in the innate matter, although the innate matter is mixed in that, for the innate matter is pure in it self, without any gross mixture, for it is the infinite pure part of matter infinite, it is the spirits, or essence of nature.
Chap. 82. An answer to an old question, what becomes of the shape, or figure, or outward forms of the old figure, when the nature takes a new form.
All Created, or not created, or created, and dissolved again, figures or forms, lie in onely matter, either in by parts, or in the whole, for the materials of every figure is but of one matter, and the lump of all figures is the figure of eternal matter, for the infinite particular of figures, is the infinite form, shape, or figure of infinite and eternal matter, and the creation, disposals, and dissolvings of figures, are the several actions of that onely matter; for infinite motions are the infinite life, of the infinite and eternal life, which life, is as eternal matter, being part of the matter it self, and the manner of moving is but the several actions of life; for it is not an absence of life when the figure dissolves, but an alteration of life, that is, the matter ceaseth not from moving, for every part hath life in it, be the parts never so small, or disperst amongst other parts, and if life, there must be consequently sense, if sense, knowledge, then there can be no death, if every part hath life in it, so that which we call death, is onely an alteration of such motions, in such a figure, in onely matter.
Chap. 83. Of Transmigrations.
Transmigrations are not metamorphosed, for to metamorphose is to change the shape and interior form, but not the intellect, which cannot be without a new creation, nor then, but so as partly the intellect changes, with the shape and interior form, but all bodies are in the way of transmigrations perpetually.
As for example, the nourishing food that is received into the stomack transmigrated into Chylus, Chylus into blood, blood into flesh, flesh into fat, and some of the chylus migrated into humors, as Choler, Flegme, and melancholy; some into excrement, which transmigrats through the body, into dung, dung into earth, earth into Vegetables, Vegetables into Animals; again by the way of food, and likewise Animals into Animals, and Vegetables into Vegetables, and so likewise the elements.
But indeed all creatures are created by the way of transmigration.
As for example, hens, or other fouls lay eggs, and then* sit on them, from whence a nourishing heat is transmigrated from the hen into the eggs, which transmigrates into a kinde of a Chylus, then into blood, blood into flesh, flesh into sinews, sinews into bones, and some into veines, arteries, brains, and the like. *The yolk and white is mixt into one substance which we call an adle egge; before it be a chick it is bloody.
For transmigration is onely the mixing sifting, searching, tempering faculty, of innated matter, which is self-motion,* and motion is the onely transmigrater, otherwise infinite matter would lie idle eternally, though I cannot well conceive how infinite can be without motion; but howsoever we perceive so much as there are proper motions, and mixtures of matter belonging to every particular figure; and though figures doth produce figures; yet figures do not order the creation, for it is not the figures that create, but creation that produceth by figures, which creation is motion, which motion is innated matter, which matter creates and dissolves by the way of transmigrations, all figures dissolving to create, and creates to dissolve, but dissolving, and creation, which is that we call life and death, hath onely a reference to the figures, but not of the nature of the matter. *Tis a lump of flesh before it be bone, or sinew.
Chap. 84. Of metamorphosing of Animals and Vegetables.
It is impossible for Animals and vegetables to be metamorphosed,* without a creation, as to transform a man into a tree, or a tree into a man, nor a man into the form of a beast, as to turn mans-flesh into horse-flesh, or horse-flesh into mans-flesh or one mans-flesh to turn into another mansflesh, or an Oak, into a Cypres, or a Cypres into an Oak, and so the like in all Vegetables, and Animals; thus Transforming the interior forms, or rather changing the interior form, like garments, putting one, and another interior form, upon one and the same intellect nature, which is impossible, by reason the interior forms, and intellect natures, are inseparable, so that destroying the one, destroyes the other, and a change cannot be made of either, without the dissolution of the whole, no more then a man can change the whole building, without pulling down the house, for though they may make some alterations in the outward shape as to add something more, or take away, and make all lesse, or thicker, or thinner, or higher or lower; but cannot alter the interior form, which is the foundations, but if they pull it down, the same materials may be put into another form, or into the same form it was at first, but it must first be new built again, before it can have those forms, and they must stay the time of building; so for every Vegetable creature, and Animal creature, they cannot be metamorphosed, by the reason metamorphosing is to change their forms without a new creation, and they cannot change their forms without a dissolution, and then created anew, by reason the intellect, and the interior form is as one body, and not to be separated; for the interior forms of these creatures, and the intellects depend upon one another, and without one the another cannot be. *And then it is no metamorphosing I shal declare.
The intellect, and the interior form may be divided together into parts; but not separated apart, though the several sorts of one and the same kinde, as Animal kinde may be mixed in their creations, as to be some part a beast, some part a dog, or the like, and part a man, and some creature* partly a bird, and partly a beast, or partly a beast and partly a fish; yet the intellect is mixt with the interior form, and the exterior shape with the interior form. *And then it is called a new creature rather then a metamorphosed creature &c.
The like in vegetables, and if the interior forms, and intellects of each sort, nay of each creature, cannot be changed, much lesse of each kinde, thus the intellect natures, and interior forms of it, can never be without a new creation, and as for the exterior shapes of Animals may be altered but not changed; for Animals of all other creatures have their shapes most unite to the interior form, and 〈◊〉 intellect nature of any other creature in nature.
But I desire my readers not to mistake me, for want of terms, and words of Art.
For the interior or intellect nature I mean is such properties, disposition, constitution, Capacity, and the like; that makes it such a creature.
The interior form is such a substance, and such a sort as flesh, or fish, or wood, or metal, and not onely so, but such a sort of flesh, as mans-flesh, horse-flesh, dogs-flesh, and the like.
So the wood of oak, the wood of maple, the wood of ash; And the like, so the gold metal, the iron metal, and the like.
For horse-flesh is not mans-flesh, nor the wood of oak, the wood of ash, nor the metal of gold, the metal of iron.
And as for the exterior form, I mean the outward shape.
Chap. 85. The Metamorphosing of the exterior forms, of some figures.
All figures that are of a united piece, as water and fire are, and not in parts, as not having several parts of different natures, as Animals and Vegetables have, may be Metamorphosed out of one form into another, and rechange into the original form again, yet it is onely their exterior form, not their interior nature. As for example, water that is frozen, or turned to hail, or snow, the exterior is onely metamorphosed;* For the interior nature which is the circular line is unaltered, likewise when the circular line is extenuated into air, the interior circle line is not changed; but when the interior nature is dissolved, and the matter it was composed of transmigrates into other figures. *Which circular lines I shal expresse hereafter.
Likewise metals when the interior nature is changed, it cannot be rechanged again without a new creation; for if we can turn onemetal into another, yet it is not as the way of metamorphosing, but transmigrating, otherwayes we may say, we can turn Animals and Vegetables into water, when we distil them, but the magick of Chymistry shall nor return them to their interior nature, nor exterior shape. Again, although their desires make them beleeve it possible to be done, but substracting is not metamorphosing, but rather transmigrating, and substracting is one of the chiefest faculties of transmigration.
And as for those creatures that are composed of parts of different natures (as I have said) their exterior form cannot be metamorphosed, because those motions that metamorphose one part, cannot metamorphose another.
And though every part is different, yet they generally unite to the consistence of the whole figure, whereby the several transforming motions on the several parts would make such a confusion, as upon necessity must dissolve the intellect nature, and interior form of that particular figure, thus striving to alter would destroy.
An EPISTLE To The Unbeleeving Readers In NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
Many say that in natural Philosophy, nothing is to be known, not the cause of any one thing, which I cannot perswade my selfis truth; for if we know effects, we must needs know some causes, by reason that effects are the causes of effects, and if we can knowbut one effect, it is an hundred to one, but we shall know how to produce more effects thereby. Secondly, the natural Philosophy is an endless study without any profitable advantage; but I may answer, that there is no Art nor Science, but is produced thereby, if they will without partiality consider from whence they are derived.
Thirdly, that it is impossible that any thing should be known in natural Philosophy, by reason it is obscure and hid from the knowledge of man-kinde.
I answer, that it is impossible that nature should perfectly understand, and absolutly know her self, because she is infinite, much lesse can any of her works know her.
Yet it doth not follow, that nothing can be known, because all is not known.
As for example, there are several parts of the world discovered, yet it is most likely not all, nor may be never shall be, yet most think that the whole world is found, because Drake, and Cavendish went in a circular line until they came to the place where they set out at first. And I am most confident that most of all thought all the world was known unto them before the West-Indies were discovered, and the man which discovered it in his brain before he had travelled on the navigable sea, and offered it to King Henry the seventh, who slighted him as a foolish fellow, not beleeving his intelligence, and no question there were many that laughed at him, as a vain fool, others pitied him, as thinking him mad, and others scorned him, as a cheating fellow, which would have couzened the King of England of a sum of money; but the Queen of Portugal being wiser then 〈◊〉 rest imployed him, and adventured a great summe of money to set him forth on his way, which when the successe was according to the mans Genius brain, and had brought the Queen by the discovery, gold and silver mines for her Coine, then all other nations envied the King of Spain who was heir, and like a company of dogs which fight for a bone, went together by the ears, to be sharers with him.
So the Bishop, who declared his opinion, of the Antipodes, was not onely cryed down, and exclaimed against by the vulgar which hates all ingenuity, but learned Scholers stood up against him, and the great and grave Magistrates condemned him as an Atheist for that opinion, and for that reason put him from his Bishoprick, and though he had favour to spare his life, which opinion hath since been found out by Navigators, but the ignorant & unpractised brains, think all impossible that is unknown unto them.
But put the case many went about to finde that which can never be found (as they said natural Philosophy is) yet they might finde in the search that they did not expect, which might prove very beneficial to them; or put the case ten thousand should go ten thousand wayes to seek for a cabinet of precious Jewels, and all should misse of it but one, shall that one be scorned and laughed at for his good fortune, or industry? this were a great injustice.
But ignorance and envy strives to take off the glosse of truth, if they cannot wholy overthrow it; and those that write must arm themselves with negligence against censure.
For my part I do, for I verily beleeve, that ignorance and present envie will slight my book; yet I make no question, when envy is worn out by time, but understanding will remember me in after ages, when I am changed from this life; but I had rather live in a general remembrance, then in a particular life.
Earth Metamorphosed into water, water Metamorphosed to vapor, Aire and fire, at least into heat.
Motion forms a round lump of earth, or such like matter, by extenuating swels it out, and as the swelling increases, the circumferent enlargeth, and when its extended further then this solid form, it becomes pores, and the parts looser. This degree of extenuation, makes it mud, when it extends further then the degree of mud, it turns to a softer form, as that of slime; the fourth extenuating degree shapes it into a perfect ring drawing all the loose parts into a compasse line, this becomes water, and the difference of a lump, or ball of earth to the watry circle, for a round lump is when there is no space, or distinct lines, and a circular ring is a distinct line with a hollow center, that is, an empty place, in the midst of a round line, so they may be a round ball, but not a ring, or a round circle line, and a circle line and not a ball, and as I said, when it comes to such a degree, of extenuating, it turns water, that is, to be wet, liquid and fluid, and according as the circles are, is the water more or lesse, and according as the lines are extenuated, or contracted, is the water thicker or thinner, colder or hotter, heavier or lighter, and according as the lines are round, or flat-edge, pointed, or smooth, is the water fresh, sharp, salt, or bitter, but these circles may not onely dilate, and contract several wayes, but after several fashions, as to make vapor, air, fire, snow, hail, ice, and frost, as I shall declare in my following chapters.
Chap. 87. Of wetnesse.
We may perceive that whatsoever is hot and dry, and cold and dry, shrinks inward as towards the center, and whatsoever is hot and moist, and cold and moist, dilates as towards the circumference, so that all moisture is wrought by extenuating motions, and drought, by contracting motions, and not onely extenuating motions, but such sorts of extenuating motions, and drought by contracting motions, and notonely extenuating motions, but such sorts of extenuating motions as in circular figures, which circular figures make water, so soft, smooth, and flowing, smooth, because circular; for Circles make it smooth, the figures having no end extenuating makes it softby spreading and loosing the parts, as flowing by reason dilations drive all outward as toward the circumference yet the degree of extenuating may out-run the degree of wet; for wet is in such a degree of extenuating circles as I may say, the middle degree, yet there are many sorts of wet, as oylie, wet, and watry; but I have described that in my chapter of oyl, but I take oyl rather to be liquid and moist, then wet; For there is difference betwixt moist, liquid, and wet, for though moist and liquid is in a degree of wet, yet it is not an absolute wet, for dissolved gums are liquid, not wet, melted Sugers are liquid, not wet, oyl is more liquid then wet, and smoak may be said to be liquid, as being of an oyly nature, and air rather to be moist then wet, and dust, Ashes, flame, light, winde, may be said to be fluid, but not liquid nor wet.
Chap. 88. Of Circles.
A Circle is a round figure without ends, having a circumference, and a center, and the figure of a circle, may be many wayes contracted, but can be but in one way extenuated, which is by inlarging the compasse, of the line; and the reason is, because it is a round piece, without ends; for a straight line may be drawn out at either end; but if a circle be drawn out of the compasse, it may stretch out of the one side, but it will pull in the other side after it, unlesse the line be broke, and then it is no longer a circle, thus we can extend no part out, but another part must contract to give way to that part that goeth out.
Chap. 89. Of Softnesse.
All that is wett is soft, I mean that which is naturally wet; but all that is soft is not wet, as hair, wool, feathers, and the like. Likewise all that is soft or wet is made by extenuating motions; now some may ask me, why extenuating motions* should cause figures to be soft, more then any other? I answer, first, that all extentions causeth porousnesse, or spunginesse, by spreading or loosing parts, and all that are porous tend to hollownesse, and all that is hollow tends to slacknesse, and all that are porous hollow, and slack tend to softnesse; for we may perceive whatsoever figure is porous, is not so firm, strong, nor hard, as those which are close compact; for that which hath no Vacuum, or Convenient distance, hath not so much Liberty, as that which hath Vacuum;* for Vacuum is space and distance betwixt parts, which gives those parts liberty to move, and remove, and that which hath most liberty is most loose, and that which is most loose is least contracted, and that which is least contracted, is most pliant, and that which is most pliant is soft. But I desire my Readers would not mistake me, for as there is hard, soft, light, heavy, thick, thin, quick, slow, belonging to the nature of the onely infinite matter, so there are belonging to such shapes, or figures made by the working of the infinite motions making infinite figures out of infinite matter; but the difference is, that what is in the nature cannot be altered, but what is done by the working of motions may be undone again, for the effects may alter, but not the cause; thus motion and figure, or figure by motion may alter, but not the nature of the matter; For motion and figure are but the effects of the onely and infinite matter &c.
*I mean natural extenuations. **As the pores of the skin.
Chap. 90. Of Liquors. All liquors are wrought by extenuating motions, and all that is liquid and wet, are circles extenuated to such a degree, and after such a manner, and all that are liquid and wet, is either water or of the nature of water, as also of oyls, vitrals, strong-waters, all juices from fruits, herbs, or the like, or any thing that is liquid and wet; but though all that is liquid and wet naturally agree in extenuating circles, yet their* circle lines are different, which causeth the different effects, for some have different effects interiorly, others exteriorly, and some both interiorly, and exteriorly, for some have circular lines of points, others have circular lines pointed, others have circular lines of points pointed, others have circular lines of points edged, some have smooth circle lines onely edged; as the sharp edge of a knife, or the like, others have circle lines edged of one side of the line, and pointed on the other side, some their circle lines are flat, others their circle lines are round, some their circle lines are twisted, others plain, some checkred, others smooth, some more sharpe-edged, or pointed then other; some smoother, and some rougher then other; And infinite more that I know not how to describe; But these lines, nor circle points, nor edges, are not subject to our senses, although their effects may make them subject to our reason, for nature works beyond our sense, but reason is part of the sense of nature; but of all wet liquors oyl is most different from the effects of water, for all other wet liquors do strive to quench fire, but oyl doth assist it, yet all vitrals have an exterior burning faculty, which oyl hath not, and although all strong wet liquors will flame when it is set on fire, yet they will quench out fire, if enough be cast thereon.
*Oyl, hot-waters, wine, vitrals, aquafortis.
Chap. 91. The extention and contraction of circles.
The nature of extention strives to get ground, that is, space, or compasse, and to disperse, or level parts as it were, and the nature of contraction strives to thrust out space and compasse, and to thrust up parts close together, and this is the reason that a circle may contract so many several wayes, because contraction flings out the compasse, and makes use of the line, laying the line into millions of several works.
And yet the exterior form which is the circular line, be one and the same, that is, the circular line is not divided, but when those works are undone, and the line extended to the full compasse, it receives the original form, which is a round circle; for as they were contracted without breaking the circle, so they may be extended into a circle again. Likewise the circular forms may be wrought with mixt motions, as partly by contraction, and partly by extenuation, as when a round circle is wound about a staff, or pole, or the like; for though the winding about the staff be a contracting motion, or at least one way, which is when it draws inward, as towards the center, yet by winding it lengthwayes, or upward, is a kinde of an extenuation.
Likewise, a circle or smoak when it curls in rings, before the circle break, as we shall oft times see it doth contract, as folding and half curling, so it extenuates as it spreads and weares out. Likewise take a round string, that is, joyn the two ends, and put this circular string double, and then winde it serpentine wayes, and the like, and though the winding, or twisting about is contracting, yet winding or twisting one ring before another is extenuating.
Here have I set down after what manner of wayes are contracted, or continuated circles, and thus millions of several works may by circles be wrought, and several figures made thereof; Likewise for circular lines, some may be broad, some narrow, some round, some flat, some edged, some twisted, but those that are flat are most apt to be edged. Likewise there may be circle lines with smooth lines, some pointed, some checkred, some twisted, some braided, and the like.
But although the circle compasse is perfect, yet the line is not a perfect Circular compasse, because the roughnesse makes it uneven. Thus as I have said before, milions of changes may be in circles, but perchance some will say, it is no longer a circle, when it is turned square, or triangular-wayes, or the like.
I answer, it is a circle squared, but not a circle broke, for as long as the circle is whole, the interior nature is not dissolved, let the exterior figure be after what manner it will or can; for still it is a natural circle, although it be put into a Mathematical square, or the like; so those exterior figures, are but changed shapes, not the natural form, but a natural square is to have four distinct lines, and a triangle three distinct lines, and a cupe six, as I take it, or sixteen; but it is to be observed, that all those figures that naturally are made of one piece, without distinct parts, or several tempered matter, may change, and rechange their shapes, and yet keep their own interiour nature intire, that is the nature proper to such a figure; but those figures that are made of many distinct parts, or several tempered matter, would make such a confusion in their transformations, as would ruin the intire foundations.
Chap. 92. Of congealed water.
Water is not alwayes exteriorly wet, or fluid, as we may see alwayes when it is congealed to snow, ice, and hail, yet still it is water, keeping the interior nature of being wet and fluid, onely the cold contractions have, as may say, altered the face or countenance thereof; for it is to be observed, as there are extenuating motions, thrusting and stretching, inlarging further and wider out in compasse, bredth, length, and depth, as from the center to the circumference, so there are contracting motions together, draw winde, twist and pull in, as from the circumference to the center, and not onely by interior motions, but exterior motions; as for example, cold contraction upon water circles, or any thing that is porous and spungie, draws, and gathers them into several works, or draws them into a lesse compasse, as strings do a purse, or like fishers or faulkners nets.
But snow, hail, and frost, and ice is made by a level contraction, as if a Circular line should be laid upon a flat ground, and be drawn a particular work, as for example, according to the number of watry circles, there is such a quantity of water, and if the quantity of water be more then the strength of the cold contraction, it is frozen more or lesse, now the several figures which cold contraction draws to make snow, hail, ice, and frost, are after this manner, as first the interior nature of the water is a round circle like a ring.
When it contracts into hail, the exterior figure contracts into a ball, or lump, as if one should winde up a double line, or thread into a bundle, or bottom.
Snow is made by contraction, as if one should draw a round line into a three square figure, as triangular way.
Ice, as if we should draw a round line into a four square figure, as after a cupe way. Frost is made by such contracting motions, as if a round line should be drawn into a surfling, as a crackling figure.
When this congealed cold thaws, it is either by the interior strength of dilating motions, or by an exterior heat that draws these contractions out into smooth extenuating circles again.
Thus circular lines may be drawn from the round compasse, to be four square, three square, or length-wayes, as one would clap the brim of 〈◊〉 hat together; and millions of several works, and never divide the circular lines, but I will not say by a Mathematicall rule, though nature is beyond our learning.
And that which makes ice and hail more shining then frost, and snow, is, that the lines are evener; for all figures that are composed by the way of lines, are apt to shine, and those figures that have fewest points, or ends are smoothest.
Now some may say, or ask, why I should think snow is made triangular wayes? My reason is, because it seems rougher, and not so united as ice, or hail, which shews the interior figure hath more points, or unevener numbers, or unequal lines, and a triangular figure is not so smooth, or at least seems not so, as a circular, a paralel, or cupe; for in the angulars the points and lines are odd, and the lines run slope-wayes, whereas the figure of a cupe, although it hath more points, yet the figure is more proportionable, by the even number of the points and lines; for as there are four points, so there are four equal lines, which make an equal number, when in the figure of a triangular the points and lines are odd; for though there are a plural number, yet it is an uneven number, as being odd. And as I have said, the lines are slope when the figure of a cupe is just square, besides triangular points being odd, multiplie and substract by reflections, as we shall see by triangular glasses, that from one face millions are made by subdividings. Thus what is made uneven by odd numbers, are made even by equal numbers, and the odd points, and slope lines, make the figure of snow rough, and the equal points, and straight lines make the figure of ice smooth, but I treat here of exterior figures, or rather countenances, not of the interior form, for their contractions change the exteriors, not the interiors.
But if I be out, and mistake, either in termes of art, or otherwise, I must intreat my readers to pardon it, for I am no Mathematician, onely I have gathered here and there some little parcels or crums from the discourse of my friends, for I have not much kept the company of strangers, nor conversed with dead Authors by books, but these parcels I have got, I place according to my own fancy, if they sound probably, I have my ends, and the lines of my desires are pointed with a satisfaction.
Chap. 93. Motion changing the figure from water to fire.
When these watry circle lines begin to inlarge, they grow smaller, and thereby become lesse wet, and more thinne, as vapor which is lesse wet then water, and not so grosse; for as I said before, when the circle comes in such a degree of extenuating, it becomes wet, and beyond such a degree, it becomes lesse wet; and so lesse and lesse, as beforè it came to such a degree, it became more and more wet, as from being pores to soft, from soft to liquid, from liquid* to wet, likewise from wet to moist, from moist to thin, which thin is air.
But when the extenuating lines come to such a degree of smalnesse, as to cut, as a very smal line will do, which is to such a degree, as to be sharp as an edge, it makes it in a degree towards burning fire, so far as to become sulphury hot, as we know by the sense of feeling, we finde the air to be hot. This sort of air which is made of watry circles, is like seething hot water, for it is a moist heat, and not like the natural air, for this is but a Metamorphosed air; for the interior nature of water is undissolved, onely the exterior is altered, the lines being become small and edged, by the fair extenuations, but when those circles extenuate smaller then the quantity of matter will afford to give a compasse, it breaks, and turns to hot burning fire; for the extenuating motions therein ceasing not, do stretch those lines so smal, as they fall into pointed parts; this alters the interior nature from being water, to burning fire, for the interior nature of water is the circle line, but if those lines be drawn by contracting motions into bigger lines, and lesse circles, it becomes from thin hot air to vapor, or mists, and from vapor to water, and so from water to slime, from slime to mud, from mud to earth, as it did extenuate, so it contracts, if nothing hinders the same; for contraction draws in the lines to such a bignesse, like as a smaller thred to a bigger thred, so from the thinnest air to the thickest air, from grosse air to the thin vapor, from thin vapor to thick vapor, fromthick vapor to water to slime, fromslime to mud, from mud to earth; but according as the contracting and dilating motions are quick, or slow, it is sooner or longer turning out of one shape into another, and if any of the circular lines break by other motions or figures before it coms to the furthest extention, the quantity becomes lesse wasting that matter into figures of other natures, being dissolved from that natural figure; thus that ball, or lump may be dissolved, like as Animals, or the like; For no question these balls are created and dissolved as Animal kinde, and are as numerous as other creatures, and some lasting longer then others, and some dissolving sooner; though their creations are different, one being produced by procreation, the other by extenuation: thus these elements are increaseable, and decreaseable, and other creature are; and when the interior nature is altered, it dissolves as other creatures do, onely the exterior with the interior dissolves, which most of other creatures do not, for when the interior is altered in Animals, the exterior is perfect, and dissolves more by degrees.
*From earth to water.
Chap. 94. Of Oyl.
OYL is partly of the nature of fire, and partly of the nature of water; for as it is soft, fluid, liquid, and moist, it is of the nature of water; as it is hot burning and flamable, it is of the nature of fire, for that which makes it fludi and liquid, is by extenuations, and that which makes it moist and liquid is by extenuating circles, and that which makes it burning, is, that those circular lines are composed of pointed parts, which when fire and oyl meets, the fire breaking those lines a sunder, sets those pointed parts at liberty, which causeth it to rise in a flame, and the reason why it flames, is, that it doth not suddenly lose the circular extenuating nature; for flame is somewhat of the nature of water, as being fluid, though not wet, and the reason why flame is fluid, is, because it ascends in a circular motion, for though the ascent be in a strict parrelled line, yet the matter is after a circular figure, as a hollow spungy body, as after this manner or the like, which shuts upward, like an arrow out of a bow, onely imagining the arrow to be in serpentine shape, and to turn and spin about as it ascends, likewise the body to extend, or spread outward, according to the bulk or quantity, which several figures, or several motions, may be all at one time, and in one and the same thing, and work to one and the same effect, and to several effects at the same time, which causeth it to be fluid, liquid, and light, for light as well as oyl, water, or flame, is fluid, caused by extenuating motions, for as water will run forward when it hath liberty, or run backward in a torrent when it is stopt, so light will enter when it hath passage, or run back by reflection if it be stopt, but all those fluidities are different by reason their extenuations are different; For light is caused by swift extenuating paralel lines; water, oyl, and the like by extenuating circular lines, which make it moist, and liquid, as well as fluid, but flame takes part from all, for it is light and fluid by the swift extenuating parallel lines, it ascends in, and liquid, although not wet, by the circular motions it ascends up in, and burning by the sharp parts it is composed of; vitral is after the same nature of oyl, onely the lines are edged, as a knife, or the like, or sharp edged tools, which make it have an exterior pressing quality, as burning fire hath; but the exterior of oylie lines are smooth, which makes it soft, and glib, and not so sharp and penetrating as vitrals, or the like are.
Thus flame, light, oyl, fire vitrals, waters, have mixt motions, to make one figure, and many figures, to make those figures which make them to be of mixt qualities producing mixt effects, as indeed all effects are of a mixt nature.
*Or rather like flame.
Chap. 95. Of Metals.
All Metals are created after the manner of circle lines, as water, onely the lines in metal are contracted, as drawing inwards, and water circle lines are extended outward, but in all metals the circle lines are flat, and edged, having a cutting and a subdividing nature, and by reason the exteriour nature is of a circle figure, it is apt to be fluid, and to flow as water doth, when the exterior is melted by forcible motions, then it is one, as that of fire, which draws out the contracted circles of metals, causing it to be fluid by extention, yet the extention is not natural, as it is in water, but forced by an over-powerful motion; for the nature of metal is not to be fluid, which is the reason that assoon as it can get libertie, that is, when the moer strong motions let go their* hold, it contracts into a firm and hard body: again, it breaks not the interior circle, for then the nature alters, for as much as metals loseth in the weight, so much is changed of that quantity, from the natural quality, and though some metals do not, wast in quantity, which is to change in quality, so soon as others, yet they are all dissolvable, although some say gold is not dissolvable; but sure that opinion proceeds from impatience in man-kinde, not to stay the time, or rather for want of longer time of life, having not so lasting a life, as to observe the alteration, as the dissolution of gold, or perhaps they have not the right wayes to dissolve it; for certainly it is as all other figures are, dissolvable, and not fixt everlastingly in one body, Chymists make gold as a god, unalterable.
*As if an Ani mal creature should be pulled and dragged out of ‘its natural garb.
Chap. 96. Of the Load-stone.
Me thinks ‘tis strange, that men should wonder more at the nature of the Load-stone in attracting iron, and in the norths attracting o f the needle touched with the Loadstone, then at the suns attracting of vapor.
But some will say, that it is the nature of fluiditie, of which nature vapor is one, to move with facility, and not the nature* of solidity, of which nature iron is one, which is heavy and slow; but I say, if the attracting motion in one body be stronger then the contracting, and retentive motions in the other body, and those figures motions work with, be advantagious; I see no reason but a fluid body may attract a solid body; For it is not the substance of the body that works, or produceth effects, but the agility, subtility, or strength of motion, and advantage of the shape, so that the working power is more in motion and figure, then meerly the matter; as for example, doth not experience prove that fluid, vitral, will work through solid metal, the reason is, because the expulsive motions in the vitral and sharp points, are stronger then the contracting motions, in the metal and blunt edges: but some will ask me, why the Load-stone attracts onely iron? such a question I ask, why beauty should forcibly attract the eye? they will answer by sympathy; and I have heard, that it was the opinion of learned men, that sympathy had the same effect, betwixt the Load-stone and iron, but I think it not so much in sympathy, as supremacy.
Besides, it is the nature of contracting motions, of which the Load-stone is strongly inhabited withal, to work on that which is without it, as from it, not within it, or as it were upon it, which no other visible kinde of motion doth.
And certainly the Load-stone is composed of sharp figures, yet not of such sorts as heats or burns, and those figures do issue out as beams do from the sun: and as they draw the iron, they back return, and as the bright beams issue from the sun, do neither weaken nor lessen it, so the visible beams that issue out of the Load-stone, neither make it lesser or weaker; yet the beams of the Load-stone, do as the sun beams, the farther they spread out, the lesse strength they have to draw; Besides, if other motions which oppose, and are stronger then the natural motions, may weaken the strength, as accidental maladies mayweaken Animals, or shrewd and froward weather vegetables, or the natural consisting motions proper to that figure, may turn to expulsive motions, and over-power the natural attracting motions, that issued there-from.
But as I have said, it seems the attractive power of the Loadstone, is stronger then the irons retentive power, and sharp figures that issue there-from, are more advantagious then the blunt edges in the iron; and as the sharp figures in fire unknit and loosen the contractive body of metals, making them fluid, so the sharp points that issue in lines from the Load-stone fasten to iron, drawing it to it; and as fire works upon several bodies after a different manner of way, according to the nature of the body it works on, producing divers effects; so for all I can perceive may the Load-stone; for certainly we do not know, nor never can come to that knowledge, as to perceive the several effects, that are produced from the least, or as we account the most inconsiderable creature made in nature; so that the Load-stone may work as variously upon several bodies, as fire, and produce as various effects, although nor to our sense, nor after the same manner of wayes, that fire doth, and as fire works variously upon various bodies, so there are fires, as several sorts, and those several ral sorts have several effects, yet one and the same kinde, but as the causes in nature are hid from us, so are most of the effects; but to conclude my discourse, we have onely found that effect of the Load-stone, as to draw iron to it; but the attracting motion is in obscurity, being invisible to the sense of man, so that his reason can onely discourse, & bring probabilities, to strengthen his arguments, having no perfect knowledge in that, nor in any thing else, besides that knowledge we have of several things, comes as it were by chance, or by experience, for certainly all the reason man hath, would never have found out that one effect of the Load-stone, as to draw iron, had not experience or chance presented it to us, nor the effect of the needle, and all the ages before, I mean those we have Records of, were ignorant of that one effect, and perchance other ages may finde out some other effects produced therefrom, which these ages are ignorant of; And as our knowledge comes slow, and in parts, and pieces, so we know but parts and pieces of every particular thing, neither is the generality of our senses capable of one and the same knowledge; for what one sense knowes, another sense is ignorant of, and questionlesse there are some things in nature that it is impossible for our senses to be made acquainted therewith, as being too curious for our senses, but not to some other senses; for certainly nature hath as many different senses, as other works; indeed all things are wrought by sensitive motions, which must needs create a sensitive knowledge in every thing, and where knowledge is, reason is; for knowledge is reason, and sense is knowledge; but sense and reason work in several figures, different wayes, and not onely in different figures, but in one and the same figure.
*I mean here the exterior nature not the interior nature.
Chap. 96. Of the needle.
I Perceive the norths attraction of the Load-stone is not after the same manner of attraction, as the Load-stone attracts iron, for the attractions of the Load-stone draws iron to it, but the attraction of the north draws the Load-stone towards it, by the turning it that way, as the Sun will do the the heads of some sorts of flowers; For if the north attracted the Load-stone, as the Load-stone iron, the Load-stone would be in a perpetual motion, travelling to the north pole, unlesse it were fixt, but I do not hear that a Load-stone doth remove out of the place wherein it is, but it turns, as I may say, the face towards it; now the question will be whether the Loadstone turns it self towards the north, or the north turns by compulsion, or by sympathy, the experiment will be by iron, that if a great quantity of iron should be said at one side of the needle, whether the needle would not vary from the north towards the iron, if it do, it shews the Load-stone turns itself towards the north, or else it could not turn from the north, for certainly the north hath a greater operative power to turn the Load-stone to it, then the Load-stone could have to turn it self from it, so if a quantity of iron can cause the needle to vary, it shews that the Load-stone turns to the north by a self motion, and not the motions of the north that make it turn to it, but if it varies not towards the iron, then the north forces it, unlesse the Load-stone takes more delight to view the norths frowning face, then to imbrace hard iron, or that the feeding appetite is stronger then the viewing delight; for it onely turns it self to the face of the north, but if it turns not it self, the north forces it to turn, which as I have said before, is to be found by the experiments of iron; but if it turns it self, I beleeve it may receive some refreshments from those raies which stream from the north, for all things turn with self-ends; for certainly every thing hath selflove, even hard stones, although they seem insensible, so the Load-stone may work as various effects upon several subjects, as fire, but by reason we have not so much experience of one as the other, the strangenesse creates a wonder, for the old saying is, that ignorance is the mother of admiration, but fire which produceth greater effects by invisible motions, yet we stand not at such amaze as at the Load-stone, because these effects are familiar unto us.
But per chance the Load-stone is nourished by iron as many creatures are by heat, for though the creatures are nourished there with, yet the heat alters not its vertue, nor the body in whichthe heat inheres, loses not the property of heating, the sun is not weakned by warming the earth, though the earth is stronger by the warm ‘th of the sun; but warm ‘th feeds after a spiritual manner, not a corporal, and as somethings are nourished by warm’th, so others by cold, as ice, snow, and many other things that are above number.
So the Load-stone may be refreshed, although not fed by the cold north, and as fire is fed by fuel, so is the vertual part of the Load-stone by iron, or as exercise gets health and strength to Animal bodies, so doth the Load-stone on iron, and as idlenesse breeds faintnesse, or weaknesse, so doth the Load-stone from iron.
Chap. 98. Of stone.
Fire hath more power over Metals in some sense, then on stone, and in some sense hath more power over stone then* metals.
For fire will sooner melt metal, then dissolve stone, but when the exterior form of stone is dissolved, it is changed from the nature of being stone, and be comes dust and ashes.
And though metal would likewise change the interior nature, if the exterior form were dissolved, yet metal, although it be melted, keeps the interior nature, and exterior form, but not the exterior motions; for metal is metal still, although it be melted, onely it becoms fluid, this sheweth that fire doth not onely alter the exterior motion of stone, but dissolves, the exterior form, and so the interior nature, which in metal it doth not, unlesse a more forcible fire be applied thereto then will serve to melt; which shewes, that although the interior motions of stone be contractions, as all solid bodies are, yet the interior, nor exterior natural figure is not circular as metals are, for stone cannot be made fluid, and as it were liquid as metal will be, but crumbles into dust, and wasts, as wood or the like, and not evaporates away as water, which metal doth; This sheweth that the exterior and interior natural form of stone is composed of parts, and not in one piece, as a circle; I do not mean in one piece, as the exterior bulk, but in one piece, in the exterior, and interior nature; For though you may pound, or file metal to dust, that dust as small as Atoms, the like may be done to stone, wood, and flesh, or any thing that is dividable, yet it will keep the nature of being metal, stone, wood, flesh, or the like, although the parts be no bigger then an Atom; but if you do dissolve the exterior nature, the interior nature doth dissove also, thus the exterior form may be altered, but not dissolved, without a total dissolution.
*I mean the heaviest metal to the hardest stone, as gold to diamonds, or tin, or lead to a soft stone
Chap. 99. Of burning.
All that is hot is not of a burning faculty, nor all that is burning is not actually hot, and though Burning Motions work several wayes according to the temperament of the matter, and composure of the figures it meets with, yet the nature of all kinds of burnings is to expulse by a piercing and subdividing faculty, provided that the burning Motions, and burning figures are strong enough to incounter what opposeth them; but when the opposed bodies and motions have an advantage, either by strength, or otherwayes, it alters the nature and faculty of burning, and many times there is great dispute and long combats amongst the several motions, and different figures, for the preheminency.
Chap. 100. Of different burning.
Though all that is of a burning nature, or faculty may be called fire, yet all that hath a burning nature, or faculty is not of that sort of fire, which is a bright, shining, hot, glowing fire, as for example, vitrals, brimstone, oyl, or spirits, or that we call cordials, or hot-waters, or any of the like nature.
Besides all burning figures, or motions, work not after one and the same manner, though after one and the same nature, being all of a burning quality, or faculty, for some burn interiorly, others exteriorly, but as I havesaid all burning, is of a subdividing faculty. Chap. 101. Fires transformation.
The interior, and exterior figures of hot, glowing, burning, bright, shining fire are all one, and the motions working apart according to the nature of the figure it works on can change every thing it hath power over, into its own likenesse, yet the power, and strength doth alter somewhat according to the work, and becoms grosser, and finer, accoring to the temperaments, or degrees of that which they work on: as for example, wood that is set on fire, or a firy coal, is a grosser body of fire, then flaming oyl, or the like, that is such a sort of moist fluid matter set on fire, for fire takes hold, of the thinnest parts, as well as the thickest; if they be such thin bodies which are subject to take fire, for when fire is set to wood, it doth not onely take hold of the solid’st parts, but those that are more porous, or fluid, as those that rise in smoak, which become a flaming body, which is a fluid fire, but there is a cold, dul, burning fire, as well as a hot, bright, burning, as all strong vitrals, and this we call hot water, or spirits, which have an exterior nature to burn, or dissolve other bodies, and an interior nature to flame, but it hath not an exterior nature to be hot, nor shining.
Also there is another sort of fire, which onely hath an interior nature to flame, but the exterior is neither actually burning, nor hot, as sulphur, or oyl, though oyl is nothing, but a liquid sulphur, and sulphur a hardened oyl.
But this cold dul fire hath not the power of transforming to its own likenesse, by reason there is some difference in the interiors to their exteriors, where the quick, hot, burning, bright, shining fire, the exterior and interior is all one, without any difference.
Chap. 102. Of such sorts of heating Motions, as cause burning, melting, boiling, Evaporating and rarifying.
BUrning, melting, boyling, and evaporating are caused by several motions, or several degrees or temperaments of matter.
And though burning, melting, boyling, and evaporating, are caused by expulsive and dilating motions, yet al dilative and expulsive motions, work not after one and the same manner, but according as the matter is; As for example, leather doth not burn as wood doth, yet both are dissolved by an expulsive motion.
Besides, some figures do dissolve into flame, others moulder away into dust, and never flame, as stone, and many more examples may be given, but most commonly all burning motions do pierce, or shut, or wedge, in sharp tootht, or pointed figures; into those figures they work upon, and then it dissolves it by expulsions; for those sharp pointed figures, help motion to loosing, and unbinde those parts that they finde joyned and contracted, that they may more freely separate those parts and dissolve those figures, which as they dissolve the thinner parts, dilate into vapor, the lighter parts flie out into fiery points, which are those we call sparks of fire, but the grosser, and more solid part moulders away into dust and ashes, as being too heavy and solid for the points to spread forth, they can onely as it were chew it between their sharp teeth; for ashes are nothing but chewed wood, yet this manner of chewing doth alter the nature from being wood, or any thing that burns after an expulsive manner, but those fiery motions that onely melt, or rather those figures that are not subject to burn, but onely to melt, is done by a stretching motion, for those motions do as it were thrust out the contracted parts, and cause them to extenuate; but when the fiery motions cause any thing to boyl, they first stretch out the parts so far, as causeth those parts to be fluid, and as it were liquid, if those things were contracted, but if they be liquid and fluid of themselves, they save those fiery motions that labour, and when this motion strives to ascend with those loose parts, the liquor riseth up in bubbles, or waves, but when those fiery motions are over-poured by the weight, they fall back again; thus the weight of the liquor, and the sharp points of the fire strive together, one party striving to ascend, the other to descend, so that those fiery motions, are to pull out, or to bear up, and the watry motion to pull, or presse down, but evaporating, is when the extenuating lines are stretcht so far out, as to break, or the lighter parts are carried away, and dispersed amongst other figures; but all rarifying heats, are caused by slow dilating motions, and not expulsions, for if such sorts of dilations as make rarifying heat, were extended beyond the line of the matter they work on, it alters the nature of the figure, and the motions of that nature; but rarifying heat is an extenuating motion, spreading parts equally, and evenly, but the farther they are spred, the more hot grows the heat, as neerer to expulsion, and though all rarifying heat is in the way of burning, yet not in the manner. But I must intreat my reader to take notice, that burning motions, make use of burning figures, for all sorts of motions work according to the matter and figure they work on, or in, or to.
Chap. 103. Of quenching of fire.
There is such Antipathy betwixt fire, and some sorts of wets, as such wets as are made by smooth extenuating circles, as they never can agree when they do personally meet; and indeed such sorts of wets, have such power over hot, burning, bright shining fire, as they never incounter, but fire is in danger to be quenched out, if there be not a sufficient quantity to break the watry circles, for it is not the coldnesse that quenches fire, but such sorts of wetnesse, for scalding water will quench out fire, and many sorts of liquors as wine, or the like, although they be flameable, yet if they be cast on this bright, hot, burning fire, it will quench it out, by reason they are more of the wet nature; then the oyly, and sulphurous, or the burning or flaming faculty.
Tis true, that there are many liquors that are subject to burn, but there are few wets that have not power to quench, for the spherical drops do either blunt the fiery points, or disperse the the united body, or intangle them in the porous circles.
Thus water hath the better unlesse the lines break in the combate, but when fire and water treat apart, or by an Attorny, or hath a body betwixt them to Moderate their* spleens they agree better, but in this treaty most commonly the water becoms weak by rarification, and evaporates into air by too strong, or too much extenuating, extending further then the wet compasse.
*As Vessels wherein water is put, and fire underneath.
Chap. 104. Of the quenching of fire, and evaporated Water.
The reason why water quenches fire, is, that the figure being spherical, and porous, gives distance and space of parts, where the sharp figures of fire, flying about to bite the circular lines asunder, that they may ravel out that figure of water, lose their strength both in their ffight and compasse, breaking their forces, by dispersing their parts, and intangling their dispersed parts in the hollow places, in the watry figure, like arrows that are shot into a net, seldom break the net, but intangle themselves, by reason there is no firm substance to strick on, or in; for being soft and spungy, there is no stop, nor hold; besides water being wet and wet in the nature is sticking, that when those sharp points do at any time break the lines, they joyn again, for being fluid each part moves to each other, and being wet they joyn, and being circular they unite, into the natural figure.
Thus in a plain combat water most commonly hath the better of fire, if there be not too much odds on the fires fide for quantity, but when fire doth come by an undermining motion as when some other figures are betwixt them, then fire gets the better, by the help of those undermining motions.
Chap. 105. Of a bright-shining hot, glowing, fire.
It is the nature of bright-shining, hot-glowing fires, to have both an interior, and an exterior burning, and is of such a kinde of subdividing nature, as it strives to dissolve all united parts, or bodies, and if it doth not dissolve all bodies it works on, as we shall see many things which grow harder with fire, yet is not that the nature would not dissolve such a thing, but the power cannot, for those bodies that grow harder with* fire, opposes the power of fire, and strives by contraction to unite the looser parts, in a more solid body, to resist with more strength. *This sort of contraction is drawing inward.
Also some bodies grow hard by shrinking inward, for assoon* as they feel the fire, they draw back, as from an enemy, having an Antipathy thereunto. *Those sorts are falling backward.
Thus, it is not the fire that dries or hardens, or maks more* solidity, but the opposite body that will not burn, having a strength to oppose, or a nature not to subject to this fire, or the fire hath not a sufficient power to overcome, but this sort of fire hath a general power, though some bodies will strongly resist it; but it is the nature of this sort of fire, that most bodies they overcome, they first convert them into their* own likenesse, but their natures being different, their prisoners die in the fiery arms of their enemies. *The contracting motions too strong for the expulsive motions. **Yet there are but few bodies that are not overcome at last.
Chap. 106. Of the drinesse of hot, burning, bright, shining fire.
DRinesse hath such a relation to hot, burning, bright, shining fire, as moistnesse to water, for though interior motions are expulsive, yet the exterior is attractive, drawing all unto it, like a greedy appetite, and as the teeth doth mince the the food that is chewed, so doth the pointed figure, of fire, all it laies hold on, or enters into.
Chap. 107. Of moist colds, and moist heats, of dry colds, and dry heats &c.
HEat doth not make drought, for there is a temper of heat, and moist; nor cold doth not make drought; for there is a temper of cold, and moist; nor heat doth not make moisture, for there is a temper of hot, and dry, nor cold doth not make moisture; for there is a temper of cold, and dry, but when the motions of heat, and the motions of drought joyn, they cause hot and dry effects, and when the motions of cold, and the motions of drought joyn, they cause cold and dry effects, and when the motions of heat, and the motions of moisture joyns, they cause hot and moist effects; and when the motions of cold, and the motions of moisture joyn, they cause cold and moist effects, yet there are infinite varieties in their several effects; but those motions which make cold and heat, I may fimilife to wandring armies, of the Gothes, and Vandals, which over-run all figures, as they all the world,* sometimes they work attractive, contractive, retentive, disgustive, expulsive, according to the temper and degree of matter, and proportion and shape of the figures they meet, or according to their own power and strength, and although both cold and heat, are motions that work more or lesse upon all the figures in this world, yet cold heat works not upon figure alike, but differ as their figures differ, nor are cold and heat directly the same motions, although they be of the same kinde of motions, no more then several sorts of beasts kinde, yet all beasts are of Animal kinde, and most commonly like several sorts of beasts that falleth out, or rather like two equal powerful Monarchies, that oppose one anothers power, and fight for preheminency, where sometimes one gets the better, and then the other, sometimes by strength, and sometimes by advantage, but when there is a truce, or a league, they have a common commerce, joyning their motions, working sympathetically together, which produceth an equall temper.
*I mean the matter that made it.
Chap. 108. Of the motions of cold, and heat, drouth, and Moisture.
Cold and heat, are not wrought by different kinds of motions, but after a different manner of workings or movings, for a moist cold, and a moist heat, are but one kinde of motions, as being motions that extenuate, and enlarges from the center to the circumference; for a moist heat, doth thrust, or drive outward, as toward the circumference.
A moist cold doth pull, or draw from the center towards the circumference. As for example, we shall often see a gardiner that rolles a green turft walk, to thrust the roll before him, and when he is weary with pressing forward, he will turn his arms behinde him, and pull the roll after him.
Also a dry, or congealed cold, and a dry heat, are not several kindes of motions, but moves after several manners; for as moist cold, and heat extends, and enlarges from the center, to the circumference, so a dry heat, or a dry, or congealed cold, contracts from the circumference towards the center, the congealed cold in several works; a dry cold, or a dry heat onely draws into a lesse space, or compasse, yet the same difference in the manner of the motions, is between a dry heat, and a dry cold, as was between a moist heat, and a most cold; for a dry heat drives from the circumference to the center; & a dry cold draws from the circumference to the center for although al drought is from the circumference to the center, and all moisture from the center to the circumference, yet the several manner of movings are infinite, also cold, and heat are not several kindes of motions, but different motions, as every man is of man-kinde, but they are different men.
And if we observe the effects of heat, and cold, we shall finde them to work after one and the same manner; for very sharp colds, and great heats, paines equally; and sharp colds destroy with as great & strong fury, as burning heats; neither can I perceive that burning heats have swifter motions, then sharp colds; for water to the quantity shall freez, assoon as any light matter shall burn; for water shall be assoon frozen, as straw burnt, take quantity for quantity, and Animals shall be assoon frozen to death if they be touched, or struck with very sharp colds, such as are neer the poles, as be burnt under the torrid Zone; as for plants, we oftener see them killed* with cold, then heat, and I perceive there is no thaw so sudden, as a frost; for when any thing is frozen, it is not suddenly thawed, which half perswades me, that cold is the quicker motion; but howsoever we perceive they do often dispute for the mastry, when some time the cold predominates, and sometimes the heat. But when there is an amity,** and friendship between both, then it is temperate weather.
*As several men will. **as peace among neighbours and friends.
Chap. 109. Of dry heats, and cold, and of moist heats and colds.
All dry heats, and colds, are created, or produced by such manner of motions, as pleating, folding, surfling, crumpling, knitting, linking, brading, tieing, binding into a lesse compasse, or space.
All moist heats, and moist colds, are created, or produced by such manner of motions, as smoothing, planing, stricking, or stretching; but burning heats, are like those motions that prick a sheet of paper full of holes, or dart it, or cut it, but there are infinite of these several kinds of motions, which make these several heats, and colds, working according to the several degrees, or temperaments of matter, and the composers of figures, but l onely set these few notes to make my discourse, as easy to my readers understanding as I can; for it is a difficulty to expresse several motions, although they be so grosse as to be visible to the optick sense.
Chap. 110. Of shining figures.
All figures that are composed of lines, are the aptest to shine, because lines are the evenest measure, and* the smoothest rule, for mathematical motions to work with, but according as the lines, either exterior, or interior is smooth or rough, contracted or extenuated, shines more or lesse; for some lines are interiorly even, and smooth, and exteriorly rough and unequal, as pointed lines, or chekred, or milions the like. *I say aptest, not as they do.
Others are exteriorly even, and interiorly rough, as lines of points, some are interiorly rough, and exteriorly rough as lines of points pointed and some are interiorly smooth, and exteriorly smooth, which are drawn out even, as one piece, and not composed of parts.
Chap. 111. The motions that make natural air, and day light.
Natural air, which is not metamorphosed air, is made by such kinde of motions, as makes cloth that is spun threads weaved, as with shuttles in a loom; so some motions spin threads of thin dull matter, and other motions interweave those threads, where the grossest sort makes the thicker air, as great threads make course cloth, and the thinner matter makes the serenest air, as small threads make the finest cloth; where some is like cobweb-lawn, so sheer, or clear, as the smallest objects may be seen through, which is spread about the globe of the earth, as a thin vail over a face, or body, and from the sun rising, the motions that make light run in lines upon it, and so is like a garment laid all over with silver-twist, or rather like silverwier, from the sun rising to high noon, it is as it were, setting, sewing, or imbroidering on; this serene air at mid-day it is quite finished, and by sun set it is quite reapt off again.
And to shew that the lines of light are as it were laid upon this serene air, and not mixt into it, is by the vapor which gathers into dark clouds, which will obscure the light, as far as they spread, besides if the light were intermixt the motions and matter could not so easily, nor so quickly withdraw, or intermingle, as we see they do; for what is intermixt, is hard to separate; but dark clouds are onely as spots, which by rarification are rubbed out, if they be wet spots, or drops, they fall out in shours of rain, but by such sorts of motions as by ringing, or squeesing, or griping with a hand, or the like, which breaks the sea, or waves of water, which are clouds, into several streams of drops, sometimes with a greater force, and sometimes with a lesse, according as the motions are stronger, or weaker.
The difference betwixt this serene, and natural air, and the metamorphosed air, is as a natural face, and a mask which is put on, or put off according as the watry circles contract, or dilate; the other in probability may be as lasting as the sun it self, not being subject to change, but by a natural creation or dissolution.
Chap. 112 Of light.
Light is made by such a kinde of motion as heat, being an equal extenuating motion, but the difference is, that the motions that make heat, is a spreading motion, but light is made by a spining motion, equally drawing out long paralel lines, with an extraordinary swiftnesse, evennesse, smalnesse, and straightnesse.
Chap. 113. The reflections of light.
The reflections of light when are the innated matter draws even lines with equal motions backwards (as I may say) for when their motions are stopt, with a more solid matter, then that which they work on to make light, where touching, or beating thereon, they do not break their lines, but the leading innated matter, which makes light, returns back in equal lines, with equal motions, so as there becomes equal lines of light, onely as some lines run forward, others run backward, but in straight paralel lines, not crossed, nor perturbed; for when these motions are crost, or perturbed, it doth as troubled waters do, the one rising in several colours, as the other in waves, so the colours are the waves, or billows of light.
Chap. 114. Of light, and reflections.
No question but there are as many various lights, as faces, and as different kinds of lights, as there are different Animals, or vegetables, or minerals, as some I will here set down for distinction, the sun light, the lighs of the fixt stars, the fire light, meteor light, glow-worm light, rotten wood light, the light of fishes bones, and there are many sorts of stones which will sparkle in the dark, as diamonds, and many I cannot recount. Then there are produced lights, as day from the sun, flame from fire, then there are reflected lights, as the planets, and reflected lights from reflected lights, as the light from the planets on the earth, and infinite reflections made by several motions on figures, for on every figure are several reflections.
Chap. 115. Of some opinions of light, darknesse, and Death.
Some say light is nothing but a motion, but there can be no motion without some matter, for where there is no matter, there is nothing to move; but light, as other effects are, is made by such kind of motions on such degrees, or tempered matter, and so is heat, and cold, and darknesse made by several motions, on such matter, although some opinions are, that darknesse is nothing but an absence of light, as some think death is a cessation of motion; Tis true, death is an alteration of such kinde of motions, as we call life; so darknesse is not made by such motions as make light, for there are motions belong to darknesse, as well as those to make light; so there be many several motions, in dissolving of figures, which dissolution we call death, as the creating of a figure, which we call life.
Chap. 116. Of darknesse.
Those motions which make darknesse, seem to be as swift motions, as those that make light, for the air is as soon made dark as light; but some do say, there is no motion in darknesse, and that darknesse is a cessation of motion; Tis true, of such kinde of motions as make light; but not of all motions, no more then the motion of the sun makes all light, or the absence of the sun makes all darknesse; for first the sun is not the onely light, for we can set up lights, when that is gone, by fire, whose flames do illuminate that part of air, that is neerest, and could we make a fire as bigg as the sun, and feed it perpetually, we might have a perpetual day, and the air* will be as much illuminated, if there were a sufficient fire, to inlighten so much air at one time, as the sun doth; wherefore the sun is not the monopler of such kinde of motions, as make light. And can we rationally think there is no motion in darknesse, because the motions of the suns light are gone from our Hemisphear, we may as well say a fish cannot swim, because such a horse doth not gallop, but to my fancy darknesse works upon the air, as well as light; for a dark cloud shall obscure the light, as well as the light shall pierce through a dark cloud; thus darknesse covers many times the face of the light, which shewes it is not alwayes the with-drawing of light which makes darkness, since darknesse hath as much power over the light, as the light over darknesse, but obstructed motions make darknesse, and hinder those equal motions which make light, and those motions that make mists, and fogs, are in some degree like the motions which make darknesse, and so are such motions as make colours, but the motions of darknesse seem to be intermixing motions, as I may say snarled motions, which intangle themselves, and the different motions of darknesse, and light, are like skeines of silk, where the light is like thread which is pulled out even and straight.
And darknesse is like a skein of silk, which is so insnarled, or broken, as not any can finde a leading thread, being full of ends, knots and entercourses.
*I speak this as a comparison, for I know the sun is much bigger then the earth.
Chap. 117. The motions that make Darknesse.
The motions of darknesse upon the air, are after another manner, then those of light, for as light is laid in such smal, straight, even, out-drawn lines, so darknesse is like motions of silk imbroidery, the work to be bossy, full of intermixing stiches, and crosse threds, knotted and purled after this manner.
And the reason I say silk, is, because darknesse is softer then light, which light I similise to silver, for the brightnesse of light many times hurts the opticks, which darknesse doth not.
Chap. 118. Of Shadows.
Shadows are copies, and pictures, drawn, or printed, or ingraven by dark motions, for dark lines made by the eclipsed light, are as the pencel, or the like, the light is the paint, the solid body on which shadows are cast, is the ground or substance to work on, motion is the artificer; for several lights are like so many several sorts of paintings; for colours are but a perturbed light as some say, but to shew it is darknesse that doth pencel out, is that there would be no such representments, if darknesse were not; and too much light drowns the figure, or is as it were plash’d, or dabbed out, or if so much paint were spilt, or cast on the ground without order; Yet all shadows are not as if they were painted, but printed in black and white, as against a wall, or on water, or the like, but on a looking-glasse, or on a piece of paper through a little hole, in a dark room, it is as painted, the colours being represented as well as the figures.
Chap. 119. Of shadows and airie figures.
Shadows are printed, or ingraven, or painted by those motions, which make darknesse upon inlightned aire, but the print is not seen, but upon a solid ground, or flat, as I may say, which ground must be opposite to the figure it represents, which is after this manner, as one figure makes more, for the figure makes a figure, that is, the external motion of the external figure cuts out a figure of aire; for questionless wheresoever our bodies are, there is the figure in air; for we are alwayes encompast about with air, wherein we make prints of our figures; for the solid bodies print their figures in that which is more porous, and softer substance, as a seal on wax, or a print on butter, or the like; thus the solid bodies as they remove, still make new prints perpetually, and infinitely, but as they remove, the prints melt out like verbal and vocal sounds, which print words, and set notes in the air, and the reason we uannot see the letter in the air, as well as hear the sound, is, that the air being so porous, is proper onely to convey a sound to the ear, or to spread it abroad; but not solid enough to fix the eye thereon, having not substance to hold an object so long a time as to take notice thereof, unlesse it be drawn into a shadow upon a substantial ground, on which the eye may fix; but until the figurative be cast upon a solid ground, the figures are like sculpture, but when they are drawn in shadows upon a ground, it is as painting, or printing.
Chap. 120. Of a more probable opinion to me of light making several colours.
The lines of light are whole and come so from the sun until the light of such a figure, and according to the figure, there the lines are broken, and the breaking of light a ccording to the several figures, makes several colours, so it is not inherent in the thing, but in the form of the thing, which is the figure that makes several colours breaking the several lines of light several wayes, so the Diers of several colours by their observations findes it out by their practise, though they know not the reason of it, but the true reason is, that all those several dies make several figures, which several figures breake the lines of light several wayes, which being broken several wayes produce all those several colours.
To shew you that it is several figure that breaks the lines of light that make several colours, you may see it in a pigions neck and brest, how many various colours it will change into, with and in the same place, the lines of light being broken several wayes by the pigions feathers, that make several figures, as also you may perceive in Rain-bows, the sun shining upon a watry cloud, the cloud being between you, and the sun what various colours there are, so to spout water out of your mouth, if it be between me and the sun, it makes the same colours, and all this is nothing else, but that the lines of light are broken so many wayes, by the several forms and figures it shines of, which produceth the multiplicity of all those various colours.
Again, more plainly to make it appear, that there can be no more truth but this in colour, take a triangular glasse it is all of one colour, and was never sent to the diers, and look in it, and you shall see the most various colours in the world, the colours are not in the glasse, therefore with rational man it suffers no dispute at all, that colour is nothing else, but the lines of light broken by several forms, and figures, that produceth all the various colours that are in the world. And for excellent disputants, that make Aristotle their church of reason, that cannot erre, and will maintain his nonsense against reason, I leave them to their ignorance, and wish they would rather follow his Logick, and his Rhetorick, then his natural Philosophy, for their own sakes.
Chap. 121. Of Colours.
Some say colours are made by perturbed or obstructed light, but in my opinion, colours are broken lines of light; for when light is obstructed as being stopped it reflects with double light, those lines returning back like double strings, and if it were perturbed light, like over-agitated air, or troubled and rough waters, the light would be onely thicker, and mudier, having not liberty to move in so level, even, and straight, paralel lines; it is true, those perturbed motions may be the cause many times of breaking the light, which broken parts contracting into several figures, or works, causeth several colours, every particular work, being a several colour, and when these several figurative works are mixt, being part of one work, and part of another, the colors are also mixt.
For the several works made of the pieces of light, are that which makes several colours, and not the pieces of light without those works, for if those pieces of light lay scattered and not contracted into several figurative workes, they could, or would not make colours, but if colours are not made by pieces of light, they are made by contracting the straight unbroken lines of light, which contraction turns light into colours, as contractions do water into snow, ice, hail, frost; Now it is to be observed, that it is not onely the contracted motions on the water that make the difference, but being contracted into such or such a figure; for whensoever water is contracted into such a manner of figure, it is snow, if into such a figure it is hail, if in such a figure it is ice, into such a figure frost, and may do so constantly, and eternally, and so when light is contracted into such a figure, it is red, when into such a figure, blue, into such a figure, yellow, into such a figure green, and when it is contracted partly into the figure of red, and partly into the figure of blue, it makes a figure of purple, and if it be contracted partly into the figure of red, and partly into the figure of blue, and partly into the figure of purple, it makes a fourth figure, which is a fourth colour, and so a fift, and so infinites, likewise one and the same figure which is one perfect colour, may vary with each patticular figure, which is each particular colour, and upon what body soever these figures are printed, they take colours, and according as the figures differ, the colours are changed, or alter; for it is not the body that they are printed on, or the reflections of light, cast upon such bodies that make colours, but such figures made by contracted lines of light, which figurative works give such colours to any thing they can print, or place on, but the reason why I think they are rather broken pieces of light contracted, then contracted streight lines, is, because they are so lasting, for though some colours will fade sooner, yet some will last a long time; for whatsoever work is wrought with parts, as I may say, several pieces of thread, is not so apt to undo or ravel out, as that which is but of one piece, unlesse the thread were circular, without ends, but lines of light are paralels, and not circles, as for shadows of colours, in my opinion they are produced after this manner as I said, the figure of blue or the like, which is one perfect colour, and the figure of red which is another perfect colour makes a third figure, which is a mixt colour, likewise blue and yellow makes a different figure, which is a different colour from blue and red, and blue and yellow, makes a different figure, which is a different colour from blue and green, & so we may match figures until we be weary, but whatsoever hath constantly part of one and the same figure, in the several or single compartments of other figures, which are other colours, as blue and green, blue and red, blue and yellow; and the like appears in shadows, by reason one particular figure, or figurative part is the ground-work, which is, the ground colour, which makes all the colours it mixes with, partly of its own complection, and according as there are more or lesse, of that figure, the shadow is fainter or stronger, and according as the contractions are more or lesse, the colours are deeper, or paler; for those figures that are closer contracted, and rougher wrought, are the darkest colours, as neerest to black, and those figures that are loosest, contracted, and finer wrought, ars the the lightest, or palest colours, as being most light, when the parts are loosest, and most at liberty, and the brightest, as the most glorious colours that are made of the purest, and clearest light, which is of the smallest lines of light, as I may say, the finest threaded light, for some lights are thicker then others, by reason their lines are grosser.
Also colours which are broken contracted lines of light, may appear darker, or brighter according to the reflection, of other lights, or rather according to the straight and unbroken lines of light are that cast upon them, likewise some light doth alter the colours that are made by other lights, as some colours appear not by candle-light as by day-light, and the reason is, that several lines of several lights, being grosser, or finer, causeth the colour to appear duller or brighter, and some particular lights make some colours appear more then others, and some particular lights obscure some particular colours more then others, according as they are further, or neerer off the nature of each other; for though the several figurative works make the several colours, yet it is the lines and pieces of light, that make those figures and works.
Chap. 122. Of airy figures.
As I said before, the solid bodies moving in the soft, & more porous bodies, make many figures therein, some as printed, some as painted, others as sculpture, as cut, or carved in wood, or stone, or cast in metal, or moulded in earth, some are as if a man, or the like creature should print themselves in snow, others as if they should make themselves in snow, as for example; as if a man should stand, and let the snow fall thick upon him until he were all covered over, there would be his figure in snow, or if he should lie down in snow, there would be his print; so it is in air, as we move from place to place, new figures are made, and the former figures moulder, or melt out, but according as the air is, so they last, or decay, for if the air be congealed with cold, thickned with grosse fogs or mist, the figures last the longer therein, although in a misshapen posture, like ruinated buildings, or broken statues, or like defeated armies, here an arm, or a piece of an arm, or a hand, and there leggs, here a head, there a mangled body; but when the air is thin, and serene, the print dissolves assoon as the figure removes; and if the air were as solid as snow, we should see the figures as perfect in the one, as in the other; but the air being very thin, and porous, the sight of the eye runs thorow without stay, or stop, taking no notice, like water in a sieve, wherein nought can be contained, because there is no hold to keep the water in from running out.
Chap. 123. Of External figures, and internal forms.
In some things there is such sympathy betwixt the internal form, and the external figure, as the alterations of the one, change the nature of the other; as for fire, when the external figure is altered, the internal faculty is gone, here the internal nature depends upon the exterior figure; but as for water, the external figure may be changed, as we see when it is frozen, but the internal nature not changed, for it is as water still, though it be not fluid, here the internal depends not upon the external; but thus much the exterior figures of all things depend so so much upon the exterior form, or nature, that when the internal is changed, the exterior cannot be altered, from and to, as to change the countenance or face, as I may say by contraction, and dilation, as water, and metals, and many others, but an animal figure may remain, as it was for a time, when the internal is changed, but not long, as for example, Animals, although the internal nature, and faculty be* changed, which is to move after such a manner, as is proper for Animal, the external figure is not altered: for when Animals are dead, the external, which is the outward shape remains perfect, for a time, yet the internal motions may be in disorder, as they are in animals that sound, or are sick or faint, or in vegetables that are fading, or drooping; but when the internal motions move orderly again, either of themselves, or by the help of assistant motions, and figures, the Animal is as it was before, and the Vegetable flourisheth green again, thus there may be an alteration; but when there is an absolute change in the internal, there can be no return, but by a new creation, for all alterations of motions do not do it, but a total change. *As we say dead.
Chap. 124. Earth, water, air, fire, cold, heat, light, darknesse.
Earth, water, air, fire, cold, heat, light, darknesse, is made as Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, that is, that such degrees of innated matter works upon the dull part of matter with various motions, and several degrees, of dull matter produceth such effects joyning parts together, and separating parts asunder, but joyning, and mixing each degree together, loseth not the entity of each degree, for that can never be altered, for as it was from all eternity, so it will last to all eternity.
Chap. 125. The motions of the Sun, and Planets.
The Sun, and the rest of the Planets, are questionlesse created as other Animal creatures, and their local motions* are according to the shape, as we see all Animals are, for a worm cannot run, but onely moves by gathering up the body from one place, and then stretching it self out farther, or else by rolling, and winding his body from place to place, nor beasts cannot flee as birds, nor birds cannot trot, amble, nor gallop, as beasts, because they have no shape fitted thereto; for birds want four leggs to pace and gallop, and beasts want wings to flee, so the Planets move according to their shape, turning about as a spherical circle about a center, and if the sun runs about the world with such speed (as some old opinions are, it must turn as a wheel about the spoake, or rundle as a bowl in the ecliptick line.
But if the sun, as some Modern opinions hold, doth not move out of his place, but is as it were fixed, and that the Planets move about it, in circular wayes according to their shape, then the motions of the sun, are onely by dilation, and attractions: from which light, and heat proceeds, and vapor is drawn or suckt up. *I think them to be Animals.
Chap. 126. Of the motions and figures of the four natural Elements.
The motions that make the natural figure of earth, are not* so curious, nor the matter they work on so fine, as those which make fire, air, and water; for the materials being grosser, their work is rougher, like morter that is made of hair, and lime, and the motions moving not so evenly, or distinctly, but rather mixtly, causeth it to be sad and dark, the solidity, weight, and drought are caused by the contracting, attracting, and retentive motions, which motions are the chief workers and creators of this element, which work like ants, drawing all thereto, making it like a round heap, or like a Load-stone, that attracts the solid matter.
The slimie or gelly part of the earth is made by such kinde of motions as spin small lines lik Silk-worms, in a round hollow ball; water is made after that manner, onely those lines extenuate more into perfect circles.
Natural and pure air is made by such a kinde of motion, as spiders spin webs, smal lines spread, and enterwoven evenly.
Natural fire is made by such kinde of motions, as the art of whetting, or sharpening, or pointing with a grind-stone, or Load-stone or the like, and is made like the stings of Bees, which pierce, and wound whatsoever they can enter.
Natural light is made by such kinde of motions, as wierdrawing, or drawing a small thread from a spindle.
Natural darknesse is made by such kinde of motions, as winding up threads upon bottoms, in a heap.
I say natural, because they keep their original form, and is the right kinde, and true shape, as I may say of man-kinde; For if a creature should be partly a beast, and partly a man, it were not of the right kinde, and true shape.
Likewise Elements may be of the right kinde, and yet be different as mankinde, for every particular man is not alike, neither in shape nor quality, the like may elements differ. *I say natural because there are metamorphosed elements.
Chap. 127. The reason of the ebbing and flowing of the sea thus.
I Will not dispute, according to Copernicus, that the earth goes about, & the Sun stands stil, upon which ground Galleleo saith, the reason of the ebbing and flowing of the sea, is the jogging of the earth, the old opinion is, that the moon is the cause of it, which I can hardly beleeve, for mark the tide from Scotland to Margel when the moon hath the same influence, and the tide is so many hours in coming from Scotland to Margell as if one rid post, if it were the moon, why should it not be high water, or full tide Margell, that it is in Scotland at the time, the power of the moon being all one, so that comes very improbable to me, for many things fall out at the same time, and yet the one not cause of the other, and in Philosophy there is nothing so ordinary, as to mistake the cause of things, since indeed the things for the most part are hid from us; some again will have the Sun the cause of the ebbing and flowing of the sea, others rationally say, heat makes motion, and the seas being salt make motion, because it is hot, but how comes it that the fresh waters ebbe and flow? even springs well, whatsoever the cause be of the seas motion where it moves,; for in some places they say it doth not, but where it moves it is never high water in one place, but it is low water in another place, and the sea moves alwayes* circularly, for as it is the nature of water to be made in figures of circular lines, so it is the nature to flow circularly, which in my opinion is the reason of the ebbing and flowing tides, that moves circularly, that is, part of a circular, where the convex flows still forward, the flowing motion extends more and more, causing it to swell out, and the concave ends to extend longer and closer, in so much as at last the concave ends are joyned into a convex, for it doth not extend in aperfect round circle, as I shall describe in my following discourse, but after an oval, or rather a pear figure, but when the flowing convex is extended beyond the strength, it straight breaks, being most weak, by reason it is most extended out, so that when the tides have no more strength to flow for want of water to extend, and the convex over-powred by extenuation, it breaks asunder, and so falls back, whereby the convex parts are now become the concave, and where it was concave, is now become convex, which causeth it to flow the other way, and ebb where it did flow, for where it lies concave it ebbs, and where it is conex is flows, and thus it ebbs and flows perpetually, where it hath free passage, but the farther it flows, the weaker it becoms, by reason the strength is abated, like a horse that hath run fast and far, at last is so weak and breathlesse as he falls down, so when the convex can extend no farther, it breaks in two, but as the convex extends, the concave ends draw closer together, whereby such time as they come to joyn, the convex is so bowingly stretched, as it becomes brittle, as I may say or weak, which causeth it to break, but it is to be observed that the tides have a double motion, for as the convex flows forward, the concave ends draw backward at one and the same time, for the extenuation of convex one way, causeth the extenuation of the concave* ends the other way; but by reason the two ends draws close towards a point, the ebbing waters seem narrow and little, but the ebbing tides are but an effect of the flowing tides, not a cause in it self, for the interior nature of water is to flow where it can get liberty, and freedom of passage, and where it doth not flow it is obstructed by some obscure cause, but I desire my reader not to mistake me, as to conceive the motions of the tides, and the interior nature of water all one, being something alike; but the motions of the tides, and the motions of the interior nature of water are as different as the local motions of Animals, and their interior nature, and I beleeve if the fresh waters had the same liberty as the sea waters, to flow which way they would without opposition, or obstructions of hils, dales, banks and walls, and had the like quantity to move withal, I beleeve they would as naturally flow as the sea, and ebbe when their strength fails, and I beleeve if there were a sufficient quantity of water in the sea, and no obstructions, as Islands, creeks, and the like to hinder the passage, and that the earth were like a billiard ball, it would flow perpetually round, as the Globe turns upon the Pole, if the Pole turns not round with the Globe.
*If one powers water on the ground it flows with a Convex. **In a pear figure.
Chap. 128. Describing the tides.
The flowing water gathers up together like superflous humors, and swells out the convex, as corrupted matter doth the skin, and never leaves extending till it breaks, but it begins by degrees in a demy-circle, and as it flows it grows larger, and longer extending its compasse.
And as the convex extends, the concave ends must of necessity draw closer together. Which makes the ebbing waters like a tail to the convex, which as the body, which makes the ebbing waters to be narrow, and by the reason the bulk of the water flows in the convex, it causeth the concave ends to be small, which makes it shallow, and the more the concave ends extend, the smaller they are, like thread drawn from a full distaff of flax; for so the concave ends draws, or rather extends from the convex body; But as I said before the more the convex extends, the closer the concave ends draw together, and when the convex is extended to the uttermost they joyn.
And assoon as ever they are joyned and mixt together into one point, as it were, it swels into a body.
For the former convex being broke, the waters fal back to that part which was the concave, but now is become the convex, and that part which was the convex, is now become the concave.
Yet the convex must be full before the concave ends extend, like as a glasse that must be filled above the brims before it can run over.
Chap. 129. Of double tides.
An after, or double tide is caused by winde, like as a man should walk against a very great winde, that although he presseth forward, yet it drives him back, but when he hath broken the gust as it were, he passeth more forcible through, and though winde have power over the exterior motions of the waters, yet not on the interior motions, but winde can discompose the face of the waters, as anger doth the countenance of men.
Chap. 130. Ofspring Tides.
Spring tides I conceive to be caused by waters that issue forth from the veins of the earth, which are apt to swell, and then to vent themselves forth at certain times, as natural issues, which flowing causeth the tides to be greater, because it hath more strength to extend farther, and the tides to be higher because the convex is thicker, and fuller, for the greater body of water, the farther it flowes; for it is for want of strength which makes an ebb, or want of passage which makes a stop, and when the tides are lower, there are some invisible obstructions, or the eatrh hath drawn or suckt from that part of the sea.
Chap. 131. The tide and stream flowing against each other.
The reason the tide flows against the stream a of River, is, that the quantity of sea water forceth through the stream, and the descent of the river forceth the stream to passe through the motion, or rather by the motion of the tide, for the natural motions of all waters being to flow, and the force of the descent added therto, gives it a double, if not a treble strength, so that when the force of the tide, and the force of the stream meets, and incounters, they make passes, as Duellers that fight hand to hand; but if one water runs quite through another, it is most probable that the tide runs through the stream, by reason it is armed strongly with salt, which may cause it to be streamproof, when the river water is porous, and weak by reason it is fresh, and thin as I may say.
Chap. 132. The difference of salt water and fresh water.
The difference of salt water and fresh, is, that salt waters circle lines are flat, and edged, as a knife, or the like, and in fresh water, round, which edge makes it not lesse smooth, although more sharp, nor hinders the extenuating compasse, but the lines being flat, make it more solid, and so give it more strength, then the fresh water circle that is round, which makes it more porous, then salt water is, by the experience of an egge, and the like, which in fresh water the egge will sink to the bottom, but very salt water will bear it up, from sinking, and according to the strength, it will bear more or lesse, but those lines may exteriorly alter, from flat to round, and round to flat, and never alter the interiour nature, as to break the compasse, which is to dissolve the circle or ring (as I may say) which circle ring is the interior figure.
Chap. 133. Of winde.
Winde is wrought by expulsive motions, and the strength doth not proceed from the thicknesse, or solidity of the body, as many think it doth, conceiving it to be contracted, or prest up air, which if it were, it could not enter into such small porous, and narrow passages as it doth; wherefore me thinks the strength should not proceed so much from the solidity, as the agilnesse therein; for the quick repetition doth so sorcibly presse on each other, as upon necessity it must drive all loose, and porous bodies before it, but the farther it bloweth, the fainter is the breadth, for as the repetitions grow short, so weaker.
Chap. 134. Of the noise of Tempest and storms.
As I have said, that sort of air which is made by watry circles is apt to sound with every motion that strikes thereon, by reason of the hollow figure being sphericall. Likewise this is the reason running brooks make a murmuring noise; also this is the reason, that the tides do make such a noise in the ebbs, and flowes, circles pressing, or rather strikeing each other.
Again, this is the reason the windes, when they blow upon airy, or watry circles, by striking those spherical circles, cause it to sound, and make a roaring noise, by the confusion it makes therein; for winde which is an expulsive vapor doth not onely strike those watry circles, but those that are extended into air, and when those motions drive circle against circle, or circle upon circle, makes such quick rebound, which rebounds in contracting and crossing each other, make a confused sound, which we call tempestuous and stormy, and it is to be observed, that a tempest in the air, and a storm in the water, and thunder, is much after one and the same kinde of noise; But as thunder is caused by the expulsion of the most extended circular lines, so winde is the expulsion of the more grosser circles, as when lines break, which are extended no farther then to vapor, also these expulsions, if they be not very violent, cause rain; for the expulsed motion being no stronger then to presse upon the unbroken and extended circles, either of vapor, or air, drives it into the watry compasse, but when the weather is cloudy, it is not altogether so hard prest upon, as to drive it into perfect water circles, but to the next degree, as a thick vapor.
And when the weather is unconstant, as we say, that is sometimes grosse and thick, and then it will be strait clear, and bright, is as the presser doth abate, or increase; but unforced raines (as I may call them) which is without a violent constraint, is when those circles are drawn into a wetry compasse in a natural order, and by the natural waight, being thicker then natural air, that is original air, and not transmigrated water, it falls down on the earth.
Likewise the pouring showers make a sound, by the force of the falling drops, striking as they fall, sound; but by reason the water is divided, by the falling motions into lesse bodies, as it were, which makes not so strong a sound, having lesse compasse as the tides, or air having fewer circles in a body, as in drops, which makes it of a lesse bulk, and the lesse the body is, the weaker, and the smaller is the sound.
But when the watry lines are drawn into a triangular figure of snow, it falls silently without sound, by reason the watry line is drawn out of the extended circle. Besides, that figure is the lightest figure, by reason of the inequality, for a square hath four equal parts, which makes a just number, so an equal ballance which gives it a steddy weight, and a circle is equally round, without parts, which gives a steddy weight.
But a triangular figure is in three parts, which is no just number, nor equal ballance, nor steddy weight, which make it of lesse force, for being a wavering figure, it cannot presse hard, nor strike strongly, nor fall heavy, but flies lightly about.
Chap. 135. Of thunder and lightning.
Thunder and lightning are caused from watry circles, for when they are extended from water to vapor, from vapor to air, from temperate air, to hot air, from hot air to fire; for if those circles extended beyond the compasse, and strength of the line, they break, which is the cause of thunder, and lightning; for assoon as the farthest extention of the circle is broken, those extended parts do with an extraordinary swift* motion run, or rather shut forth into bright flaming flashes, as spinning lines of light, but when those lines extend with a strong strength, they break into smal parts, which causeth thunder to follow lightnings; for those bteaking parts sometimes expulse disorderly, beating and striking upon those circle lines that are unbroke, which circles being of a hollow figure, cause a sound in the higher region, whereto they are ascended, for their extention causeth them to be light, their lightnesse to ascend; But all hollow figures being concave within, and convex without, do present to the ear, if they be strong, as concave, and convex glasses doth objects, when presented to the eye; thus hollow figures cause a hollow sound if they be struck, for the concave draws those motions in which rebounds from fide to side, and the rebounds continue the sound by the Echos repeated, for sound lasts longer in hollow* figures, then in any other, and though I will not say that onely hollow figures make sounds, yet I say that no sound can enter but through hollow figures, as the ear is a hollow figure, and all hollow figures, and the ear is not onely hollow, but circular, but sounds are made in the ear, or rather enters, as light and colours in the eyes, for discord is perturbed motion, or rather close Antipathetical motions, and harmony are sympathetical, and regular motions, but the more of these extenuating circles break, the more lightning there is, and the stronger they brea, the more thunder rhere is, and the harder they strike upon the unbroken circles the lowder is the sound. *See my chapter of Fame **Sound enters into all hollow places, as well as into the Animal ear.
But if the circle lines break onely asunder, and extend, or shut forth into straight lines without more parts, there is onely lightning without thunder, but if those lines break into more parts, there is thunder also, and when there falls r ain at those times of thunder, it is when the gentler motions of some of those expulsed parts, do not strike hard upon some of those unbroken circles, but presse upon them, which causeth them to draw, and gather into a lesse circle, and a grosser line, untill they return into the watry compasse, where growing too heavy for the hight, falls down toward the center of the earth, as all heavie bodies, if not thick bodies under to bear them up, or stronger motions then their weight to hold them up, thus in my opinion is thunder and lightning caused, and when it rains, those unbroken circles return into its nature again.
Chap. 136. Of the alterations of motions.
One and the same degree of innate matter may change,* and rechange the natural posture motion in one and the same figure, but a general alteration of those motions proper to that figure, dissolves the natural form of any one particular figure, for a figure moving by several motions, proper to its kinde, must joyntly consent either by a sympathy, or inforcement to make a dissolution, as well as a creation, but all motions works or alter according as the matter is, or figure they work to, or forced by stronger motions to alter their natural course; likewise several and contrary motions may work by turns in one and the same figure, by one and the same degree of innated matter. *_I call these natural that are propper to the figure. _
Chap. 137. Of different motions.
All extenuating motions make not fludity or wet, but such kind of extenuating on such tempered, or on such* degrees of dull part of matter, for some extenuating motions make light, others make heat, and infinite the like, so all expulsive motions do not burn, nor all contracted motions do not work alike, nor all attractive, nor all retentive, nor expulsive; for there are infinite wayes or kindes of them, which works infinite varieties, for there are infinite several sorts of heats, coldes, droughts, moistures (and infinite kindes of lights and darknesse as well as of colours, so infinite wayes of contractions, and attractions, and infinite wayes of expulsions, and so there are such varieties in one and the same kinde, as it is impossible for me to describe, as for one man to draw the several pictures of mankinde from all eternity; but if I could draw but one picture, it will be enough to shew my art and skill, although but a plain draught, but I finde the work too hard for my wit, yet I have ventured, and mean to hang it on the wall of censure, although I know spite will strive to pull it down. *Fethers, wool hair, and the like, which are neither liquid, fluid, nor wet, onely soft and sympathy
Chap. 138. Of the local motions of water, air, and fire.
I perceive there be other figures that have local motions besides Animals, yet it is partly their figures that are proper thereto; for though there is no matter, but is figured, yet all figures move not but of themselves, and though all figures aremoved, or moving, or both moved and moving, yet all local motions move not after one and the same manner; but I hear mean by local motion, that which naturally can move from place to place, by their interior nature, and exterior shape, but if the word is not right to the sense, pray pardon it, and take the sense and leave the word, and Christen it a new; but these kindes of local figures are water, arie, and fire, which move after an Animal manner, although they have not the shape of those we cal Animals, yet they seem Animals by their* self motion, as moving from place to place, unlesse they be stopt by stronger motions, or other figures that are more powerful: the like of other Animals, as for example, if one man, or more being stronger bindes another man which hath not strength, nor power to oppose, or hinder them, he cannot move according to the property of his nature and shape. *All animals are not of one shape.
So likewise, if cold contractions be more powerful then the extenuating circles, it bindes up the the water with icie fetters, wherby it cannot move according to the nature, nor circular shape; so if any man should go to a place, and a high wall should stand betwixt him and that place, he cannot passe unlesse there were a passage, or that he can clamber, which must be by art, because there is no footing, and to jump over it he cannot, for it is so high that the weight of his body will pull him down, before the strength or agilnesse of his limbs shall raise him over, and he cannot flee over by reason his shape is not fitted thereto, having no wings, so water being* stopt, and the passage hindered, by a thick bank of earth, cannot move according to its property; for it is proper for water to move descendingly, at least straight forth; but when it ascends, it is forced by other more powerful motions, so likewise it is proper for air to move after a level, streaming, or spreading manner. *And as a man may pick a hole through the wall, so water will pick a passage through the earth.
For fire to ascend, after a piercing, shooting, and perpendicular* manner, for these elements do as other Animals do, for man, beasts, birds, fishes, their local motions are different according to their shapes, for it is the property of a four legged creature to gallop, trot, pace, run, leap, but they cannot flee, because their shape is not fitted thereto, having not wings, nor a bird cannot gallop, trot, nor pace, having not four leggs to make changes therewith, it is true, a two legged creature may leap, jump, hop, and run. *I mean all exterior motions.
Likewise those fishes can neither run nor flee, that have not wings nor legs; but those that have mixt shapes, have mixt local motions, as there be fleeing fishes, and swimming birds, and running fishes, and swimming beasts, indeed most creatures can swim, for most shapes are fitted thereto in one kinde or another, but mans shape is such as it can imitate most various motions, though it is the shape that makes al creatures to move different ly, yet it is not altogether the shape that makes them move locally, but there must be such an interior nature proper to such shapes, as Vegetables and Minerals, their property is not to move locally, that is, to have a self exterior motion.
It seems their interior nature, and exterior shape is not proper thereto, or perchance it is only their exterior shape, and not their interior nature that makes them unfit to 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 for we finde their interior nature to be more active then many of the exterior shapes of Animals. But to return to those elements I treat of, as first water, the interior nature causes it to be liquid and wet, the exterior shape to be fluid, both agreeing by a sympathetical conjunction give a local motion to descend, and bear all before it, or with it, that is loose, and unfixt, so fire, the interior nature causeth 〈◊〉 to be hot and dry, the exterior figure to be sharp to burn, both agreeing by a sympathetical conjuncting, giving it a local motion to pierce and divide it, all it can enter into, if not over-powered; so air the interior nature causeth it to be soft, and pliant, and the exterior figure to be thin and searching, both agreeing by a sympathetical conjunction, gives it a local motion to enter through all porous bodies in a level line, and to fill up all vacant places in other figures, unlesse it be thrust out, and kept out by something more powerful; It is the natural property for fire to be hot and dry, to be sharp and burning, to move ascending.
And for water to be liquid, fluid, and wet, and to descend in a descending line. And air to be soft, and yeelding, to be thin and searching, to move in a level line, unlesse they be forc’d otherwaies, for fire may be supprest downward, and water forc’d upwards and air disperst, and fire is not onely subject to be supprest but quenched out for water, if there be a sufficient quantity to the fire on which it is cast, will over power it: for the innated motions which cause water to be wet, destroy the motions that cause fire to be sharp and burning, and the figure being destroyed, that is disuniting those parts, and those motions, that keep and maintain those parts in that figure, the property is extinguished too, as we see many Animal figures, do to one another, and birds, and fish, and men destroy beast, birds, and fish, according as they have strength proven and advantage, for indeed the dissolution of one figure 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 cause of the creation of another, sometime the 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 one figure, make many figures, and sometimes 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 of many figures make but one figure; and 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 hath many several manners of moving locally and the elements as other Animals do move somtimes slower, and sometimes faster.
Chap. 139. Explanations of onely Matter.
It is to be observed by those figures that are wrought by the way of lines, are soft, smooth, and shining, whether they be paralel lines, cupe lines, triangular lines, or circular lines, but the smaller, and straighter the lines are, the smoother, and brighter is their work, but there are several sorts of softnesse, and several sorts of smoothnesse which are made by several kindes of motions.
Then it is to be observed, that all works of contractions, and retentions are stronger, and more lasting, then those figures that are more light, and porous, or extenuating.
Thirdly, it is to be observed, that the innated matter, which works upon the light, and thin part of dull matter, is more agil, and nimbler then that which works upon the thick and solid matter, unlesse the strength of the motions be not above, or at least equal to the solidity of the matter.
Also it is to be observed, they can make solid figures of light thine matter, by their close, and curious joynings injectures, and mixtures, and porous, and light figures of solid matter, by their dividings, and spreadings, but though the innated matter can contract and dilate, the thick, or thin, light, or heavie fluid or soft, yet it cannot alter the nature, or degrees of the dull part of matter, neither can the innated matter make it self weaker, or stronger then by nature it is, for the entity of onely matter cannot be changed, but though the nature cannot be altered of dull part of matter, yet it may be cut, and carved, and joyned and dispersed into several figures, so the innated matter, although the nature cannot be altered as to make each degree weaker, or stronger, yet they may move swifter, or flower, according as the dull part of matter is they work on or according as the curiosity of the figure requires; and as I have said before, there be infinite degrees of the dull part of matter; as solid, and fluid, thinner, and thicker, lighter and heavier, harder, and softer, and infinite degrees of innated matter, as stronger, and weaker, swifter and slower, and though I have said that the innated matter is the thinnest part of onely matter, yet I do not mean the thin incipit matter, as I may call it for distinction sake; for there is no incipit in infinite, and eternal matter, though there be dull in moving matter, but the innated matter is the infinite extract of the entity of infinite matter, it is the quintessence of nature.
Chap. 140. The differences and alterations of figures.
In the progresse of figures, figures are created in figures. The reason is, that infinite motions which are the gods to create, dissolve, and dispose of figures, as they please to move, share as it were the infinite matter, in their working and dividing, and several motions, which is proper to the creation, of such kinde of figures, assisting each other in their works of creation; but not in the figures dissolution; for those motions which are proper to create one kinde of figure, are not proper to create another, for every figure hath different motions, in the creation either more or lesse, which is the reason few, or none are just alike, but either in shape, or minde will differ, but when two figures are made with the same motions, among the sensitive innated matter, then their figures are just alike, as we shall see twins, and if the rational matters motion be just alike in several figures, their dispositions and understandings are just alike, and if they differ in their motions but a little, they resemble much either the minde, or the body; sometimes both, but the more they differ, the lesse they resemble, but almost all creatures are distinguishable, which shewes such variety of motions, as there needs no more repetition to move after one, and the same manner; for there are not onely different motions in different, and several figures, but in one and the same figure, for the same figure doth not look when it is old, as when it was young, nor when it is sick, as when it is in health; nor when it is cold, as when it is hot, nay the figure will alter and change, every minuit either by the altered motion of the sensitive, or rational; but most commonly they alter their motions together, as in a joynt concent, for a troubled minde will make the body appear heavy and sad, for joy and grief will make different countenances in the figure, and so every passion in the minde, is most commonly matched with a countenance agreeable thereto, and most commonly other exterinal actions, yet although the motions may differ, the innated matter may be of one and the same degree, for I do not say every degree of innated matter moves alwayes in one kinde of motion; for though every degree of innated matter, is of a particular strength, yet not of a particular motion.
Chap. 141. Of several worlds.
As the Sun differs from the earth and the rest of the planets, and earth differs from the seas, and seas from the airy skie, so other worlds differ from this world, and the creatures therein, by different degrees of innate matter, on different degrees of dull part of matter, which makes different figures by different motions, and as this world is of a spherical figure, so other worlds may be of other figures; as for Animals, although all Animals are not of one shape; for a man differs from the shape of a horse, or any other four legged creature, and every sort of beast differs from one another in their shape. So likewise there is difference in their kinds, as well as in their several sorts, for beasts kind differ from birds kinde, so may worlds differ for all we know, and if we should guesse by the several changse, and variety in nature, it is very probable it is so; & who knows, or indeed might not very easily beleeve it so to be, that worlds may be match’d by a sympathetical conjunction to produce other worlds, as other creatures do, for we finde the planets by a sympathetical conjunction to produce other creatures, as the sun and the earth. And it is to be observed, that as several motions create figures, so several motions work by their created figures, and those motions that creates figure by a sympathetical conjunction, create after their own likenesse, either in the nature or shape, or both, but those figures that create figures without conjunction of figures, after their invention, or imitation as I may say, cannot make such figures as conjunctially of figures man calls 〈◊〉 figures, as birds make nests, or beasts make dens, and men houses, but to reckon all artificial figures, is past my skill, and beyond my life, who knows since we finde new and unheard stars, but that they are the birth of other worlds.
An EPISTLE To All Learned PHYSITIANS.
Most reverend, and gráve Fathers of health, I present this work unto your sage judgements, your prudent practises, your great experiences, your studious observations; your miraculous cures, and humbly lay it on the tables of your studies, in hope some spare time may invite you to read therin.
I dare not commend it, lest you should disprove it; for as your wisdomes value it, so it is good, or bad.
An EPISTLE To MY READERS.
I Am to be pardoned, if I have not the names and tearms that the Anatomists have or use; or if I have mistaken some parts in the body, or misplaced any: for truly I never read of Anatomie, nor never saw any man opened, much lesse dissected, which for my better understanding I would have done; but I found that neither the courage of nature, nor the modesty of my sex would permit me. Wherefore it would be a great change, even to a wonder I should not erre in some; but I have seen the intrals of beasts but never as they are placed in their bodies, but as they are cut out to be drest, and in the shambles, and perchance I haue seen passing by the shambles, a cruel Butcher cut the throat of a beast, or rip up the body, where the guts and garbidge would burst out, but that gave me not much more knowledge, not seeing how they lay in their bodies: and though it is a usual custome, for Ladies and women of quality, after the hunting a Deer, to stand by until they are ript up, that they might wash their hands in the blood, supposing it will make them white, yet I never did; but as I have said before, I have seen the intrals of beasts out of their bodies, which intrals I have heard are much like a mans, especially a hogs, so that I know man hath a brain, a heart, a stomack, liver, lights, spleen, and the like; yet these I never viewed with a curious and searching eye, but as they have laien in some vessels; and as for bones, nerves, muscels, veines and the like, I know not how they are placed in the body, but as I have gathered several times from several relations, or discourses: here a bit, and there a crum of knowledge, which my natural reason hath put together, of which meat my wit like an unexperienced Cook hath ventered to dresse, if it pleaseth the palats of my readers, I shall account my time not lost; if not it is not the first dish of good meat that hath been disgust.
OF The MOTION OF The BODIE.
PART IV. —
Physitians should study the motions of the body, as naturall Philosophers, study the motions of the heavens, for several diseases have several motions, and if they were well watched, and weighed, and observed, they might easily be found out severally; and as they take compass of the heaven, and stand upon the earth, so they may take the degrees of the disease, although they diffect not the body. Thus natural Physitians may know, when the sun of health will be eclipsed by the shaddow of melancholly, which gets betwixt the body and health; and natural physitians may come to know the thoughts, as they the stars, by studying the humors of men, & may know what influences they may have upon the body; and may know the severall changes of their humor, as they the several changes of the moon, that the several changes of the humor, causeth the bloud to ebb and to flow, as the Tides of the Sea; thus they may make an Almanack of the body, for to shew what weather and seasons there will be, as great tempests and stormes of wind-collick; whether there will fall upon the Lungs, great rheumes, as showers of rain, or whether there may be great and hot fevers, or whether there will be earthquakes of shaking Agues, or cold, and dumb-palsies, or whether there will be dearths of flesh, and so leave bones bare, by the droughts of heated fevers, or whether the over-flowing of moisture, which causeth dropsies; thus if we could finde the several motions in several diseases in a body, as surely might be done by observations, and study, and could finde out the several motions by the several operations in physick, we might surely so apply them together, as to make animals, though not live eternally, yet very long; and truly I think this both of philosophical opinions, may give a great light to this study. Physicians must first take care in their prescriptions, to prevent errours of mistake, before he apply remedies to cure.
Cap. 142. The frame of mans body.
I Will first discourse of the orderly course of nature, which is to have a perfect shape according to the kinde, or sort of figure, it was created to; that is, like a house to be well built; next to have it strong, and firm; thirdly, to have it commodious; fourthly, to have it well furnished; fifthly, to have it clean from dirt, or rubbish; sixthly, to keep it in repair; seventhly, to prop it from falling down with old age; the pulling it down by some evil accident, or burning it by feavers, or the like, or drowning it by dropsies. Andthough I may similize it, to any figure, yet I onely imploy it, to man-kinde; that is, to havea perfectand upright shape, a clear strength, sound parts, plump and fat, clean from gross humors and obstructions, to keep it healthful with wholsome food, to help nature with cordials, or physick, death being the destruction.
Chap. 143. Of natural self-tyrannie.
MOtion doth not onely divide matter infinite, but disturb matter infinite; for self-motion striving and strugling with self-motion, puts it self to pain; and of all kinde of motions the animal motions disturbs most, being most busie, as making wars and divisions, not onely animal figures, against animal figures, but each figure in itself, by discontents and dislike; which discontent makes more pain, then ease, orpleasure, or tranquillity, by reason of irregularity; but motion is an infinite and eternal tyrant, on infinite figures; for as motion makes figures, so motion dissolves figures, which makes infinite, and eternal matter, eternal restless; for the extract of infinite matter, which is an innated matter, which innate matter is motion, and makes the dull part of matter so too, by working thereon; thus the onely and infinite matter is a tyrant to its self, or rather, I may say, infinite, is a tyrant to motion, and motion to figure, and eternity to all. For though infinite, eternal matter, motion, and figure, are individable, yet they are all as separated, in aspiring for motion, although it is but an effect of matter, yet strives for absolute power over matter and figures, and infiniteness strives for the absoluteness and power over matter, motion and figure; and eternity strives for absolute power over all; thus the effects strive to have power over the prime causes, which is the onely matter; for if there were no matter, there could be no figure, nor motion, nor infinite, nor everlasting, the like do the minor effects over the minor causes, for effects are causes of effects.
Chap. 144. The two ground motions amongst the rational innate matter.
The rational innate matter, moves as it were two-fold, for they have different motions in the figures, from the figurings, like as the sensitive matter, which moves the dull part of matter, internally and externally, according to the nature of each figure; as for example, the creating of a figure is one way, and the severall actions of the created is another way; the like doth the rational innate matter, it first runs into figures, and then moves figuratively: Again, some figures they are stronger then others, will force the weaker figure to move after their manner.
Chap. 145. The two chief parts belonging to man, is the head, and the heart, wherein resides the rational spirits.
The head, and the heart, are the two residing parts, for the rational innate matter to move in, making passions in the heart, and reasons in the head; and whensoever those parts be disaffected, the understanding and passions are disordred, and many times so, as never to be rectified; but some times this disorder comes by the mis-working of the sensitive innated matter, and sometimes by the wrong steps and false* measures of the rational innated matter. But though the annimal knowledg or reason be disordered, yet not extinguished, unless the annimal sense be absolutely altered, which is to dye; for though they move not regular, yet they move after an animal manner: As for example, a man although he goeth not upright, according to his natural shape, but creeps upon his hands and knees, or that he is forced to role from place to place, having neither armes nor legs, yet he moves in an animal manner, and partly to what his natural shape is, for these force motion, or want of some of the outward parts alters him not from being an animal, nor it from being a man, unless all the sensitive motions, which naturally belong to their figure, be altered, and then he turns from that kinde of creature. *Which moves in figures like dancing.
Chap. 146. Whether the passions are made in the head or heart.?
Some are of opinion, the passions are made in the head; others that they are made in the heart; for my part I am of the latter opinion; that is, that all passions are made in the heart; as Love, Hate, Fear, Anger, Grief, Jealousie, Envy, Malice, and the like; and also the Will, and opinions, which are a kinde of passions; and that imaginations, conceptions, fancies, understanding, judgment, memory, and remembrance, is made in the brain; and that which we call thought, or animal knowledg is made both in the brain and heart; for if either of these two parts be wounded, that knowledg dies, as both the sensitive knowledg, and rational, both being that which we call thought, the one belongs to the body, the other to the minde; for touch is a weak thought, and thought a strong touch; and my reason is why I think that the passions are created in the heart, and not in the head, is, first, passion and judgment seldom agree.
Secondly, when we have the passion of fear or anger, or the like; all the motions that work to those passions, are felt in the heart; for if we do observe, we shall finde all passions arise from the heart, and all the parts near thereto will be disturbed; when in the brain we finde no violent motions at all, perchance the sensitive part may be disturbed, as to make the head-ache, as with a general distemper.
Thirdly, there are oft times passions felt as it were in the heart, without any knowledg, or thought of it in the head; as when we shall be sad, and angry, and fearful, and know no reason why. Besides, objects many times passe by, or as it were, steal through the senses, and likewise creep through the brains, and raise a passion in the heart, without any notice taking thereof, or knowledg how it came therein.
Lastly, that although there is a great sympathy betwixt the passions, and imaginations, yet they are not after one and the same manner of motions, which sheweth they are created in several figures, the one in the triangular heart, & the other in the spherical brain, and the different shapes of the head and heart, may be one cause, that makes the difference betwixt passions and imaginations, as well as the different motions.
But to prove passions are made in the heart, and not in the head, is, that when the brain is distempered and mad, as we say, yet the passions may be free and regular; and Love, and Hate, which are the two chief passions, may be constant to the objects they were placed on; thus the minde or soul, which is the rational innate matter, lies as much in the heart, as the head.
Chap. 147. Of different passions in one and the same part.
As for passion, we shall love and hate at one and the same time, but not one and the same thing, at one and the same time, for that is impossible.
But different passions are made according to the subjects or objects they move by, or to; yet the rational innated matter which creates passions, may move partly sympathetically, and partly antipathetically, at one and the same time. As for example, a man may be in love with a woman, for her beauty, or wit, or behaviour, and yet have an aversion to her bad qualities; but a man cannot love the person of a woman, and hate it, at one and the same time, but to the creating of those passions, that sympathies, as love, and hope, and joy, and the like; The rational innate matter, doth as it were spread, and delate its self; but for those passions that antipathies, it contracts it self more together; as in hate, fears, jealousies, doubts, envy, spight, and the like; and when two or three passions arise at one time; as a passion of grief for my friend that is killed, and a passionate hate to his murtherer, or the like; then the rational innated matter, divides its self, partly moving after one manner, and partly moving after a quite contrary manner, and so may divide into as many parts, and after as many several manners, as their place or quantity will give way to; but when we love what was hated, or hate what was loved, then the innate matter changes their motions, towards such a subject, or object, without a division; but when they move disorderly, the passions are like a tempest at Sea; passions beat against passions in a confused manner, distempering the whole body, causing the senses to mistake, with the violence thereof; likewise in the brain there may be opposite motions, amongst one and the same degree of innated matter, either rational or sensitive, either by an alteration of motion in one and the same part of matter, or by divisions moving in parts; but when the rationall innate matter moves in a regular division, and the measures of time, and the notes of motions skilfully set, and rightly kept, that is curiously or neatly, and carefully ordered; then there is a harmony, which harmony is a quiet minde, gentle imaginations, a clear understanding, a solid judgment, elevated fancies, and ready memory; but when this rational innated matter moves disorderly, there arises extravagant fancies, false reasons, misunderstandings, and the like.
Chap. 148. The affinity betwixt imaginations and passions.
It is the rational innate matter that makes passions, and not the sensitive innated matter, for the senses onely present the objects, the rational the passions; which shews the rational innated matter, is as much in the heart, as in the head, and may be of the same degree of strength, although they work different wayes, as being different figures, yet there is such sympathie with each other, whether by recourse, or otherwise; as passions will raise imaginations, corrupt judgment, disorder reason, and blindfold understanding: And imaginations will raise passions, as fear, love, hate, doubts, hopes, and the like; which shews that the rational innate matter, in the head, and heart, hath such affinity as the sensitive innated matter hath in the stomach and head; as the pain in the head will make the stomach sick, and a sickness in the stomach will make the head-ache, I will not say at all times, but most commonly; neither will imaginations at all times raise a passion, nor a passion, an imagination, but very often.
Chap. 149. Of the Brain.
The brain is not the cause of knowledg and understanding, for a bird that hath but a little brain seems as understanding, if not more, then a great beast, as an ox or the like, which hath far greater quantity of brain; but perchance the bird hath more of the rational innated matter, in his little brain, then the beast that hath more braine, for the rational innated matter, moves in the brain, not on the brain, for that is wrought and moved by the sensitive innate matter, being made of the dull part of matter; for when the brain is defective, it is caused by the sensitive innated matter, not the rational innated matter; yet oft times the sensitive innate matter disorders the motions of the rational innated matter, as we shall see in distempered and sick bodies; like-wise the disordred motions in the rational innate matter, will disorder the sensitive motions, as we shall see by troubled mindes.
Chap. 150. Of the multitude of figures amongst the rational matter in the brain and heart.
The reason why we may have millions of several figures in our memory at one time, so likewise raised up to our remembrance, when we can receive but one perfect figure through our senses at one time, is that the passages for outward objects to enter, is so straight in all animal figures, as that but one object can take place therein, I mean as being perfectly distinct, for the passages being straight, many objects entring at once, make a confusion, at least a disorder, for if more then one object be presented at one time, to any particular sense, they are received but by piece-meals, as in the small parts; and many times the divided parts are so mixt together, as no piece is perfectly seen or heard, or smelt, or tasted, or touched; besides, the passages being straight, the sensitive innate matter cannot work so regular, having not liberty, for it is not with the sensitive innate matter as with the rational innate matter, by reason the sensitive innate matter works upon gross materials, as upon the dull part of matter, which makes that it cannot move so nimbly, nor divide into parts so suddenly, especially in a straight passage, as the rational innate matter can, which moves onely in number and measure, without any dull mixture, for the rational innate matter, can figure out the whole world, and millions of several figures therein, sooner and swifter then the sensitive innate matter, can print one figure upon any of the senses; and not onely those figures that the sensitive innate matter presents, or hath presented, but makes those figures that were never presented, as those we call phantasms; and as I said the rational innate matter hath more room to move in, as in the head, and heart, then the sensitive innate matter, hath in the ear, eye, nostrils, mouth, or pores of the flesh, so there may be a greater quantity, or proportion of that rational moving matter together, in a body, or bulk, as I may say, then of the sensitive innate matter, in the foresaid passages, and according as the quantity of the rational matter is, there is the more knowledge, and clearer understanding; the quicker wit, and the livelier memory, the fresher remembrance, and the more multiplicity of thoughts; for it is not onely the largeness, and extent of the place wherein the rational matter moves in, that makes the more knowledg and understanding, and the like, but the quantity of the rational matter; for a great head may have but a little wit, or dim understanding, and a little head a quick wit, and clear understanding; if the little head be full of this rational innate matter, and the great head be empty thereof; but if the room (or place) be large, and filled with this sort of innate matter, according to the bigness, that creature will be very knowing, understanding, and ingenious; for imagin that all the heads of mankinde were put into the compass of one head, and a sufficient quantity of that rational matter therein, that creature whatsoever it were, would have not onely the knowledg of every particular brain joyned together, but that knowledg and understanding would increase as use-money, for that bulk or bank would multiply, being put together.
Chap. 151. Of thoughts.
Many wonder what Thoughts are, and how such millions can be within so little a compasse as the brain.
I answer, that a little quantity of the rational innate matter, may make millions of figures, which figures are thoughts.
As for example, from eight notes, milions of tunes are made, and from twenty four letters millions of several Languages may be made.
Likewise one lump of clay may be molded, and formed into millions of several figures; and like Pictures many figures* may be drawn in one piece, and every figure in a several posture; Likewise a little picture will represent so great an Army, as would take up many acres of land, were it in a pitched field.
Again, a Globe no bigger then a Head, will present the whole world.
Again, say some, how is it possible there should be so many several thoughts in the head at one time, and how from one thought should there arise so many of a sudden, and at some times so extravagant as to have no coherence therein, at other times very methodicall, and sympathetical?
To the first I answer, how many several postures may a man put his body into at one time, nay, I may say one part of the body? for how many several postures may the face draw it self into at one time?
Secondly, I answer, that many several wheels will move with one motion, nay with one kinde of motion several wayes, and many wheels with several motions several wayes, and all within one, and the same compasse, and from one prime spring. Again, some may wonder how it is possible figurative thoughts can inlarge and contract the demension, and extension; I answer, how is it with Prospective glasses, convex, and concave glasses; likewise a screen, or a fan, or the like, which can fold in many folds, into one fold, then can draw them out into a plain straight piece again, and so shut up into a fold, or open in a plain piece, as often and as quick as a thought, and millions of the like examples, may be given, but these are enough for this time, on this subject. *The world is presented like a popitplay in the head.
Chap. 152. Of thinking, or thoughts.
Thoughts are more pleasant to the minde, then the appetite to the senses, and the minde feeds as greatly on thoughts, as a hungry stomacke doth upon meat; and as some meat breeds good nourishment, and some bad nourishment, causing either health and strength, or diseases and pain; so doth thoughts, for displeasing thoughts of grief, and all sad remembrances cause the minde to be dull, and melancholly, or froward, and discontented; and pleasing thoughts cause the minde to be chearful, pleasant, and delightful. Besides, the minde is like chewing of the cud, for what the senses bring in, and are fed with outward objects; those swallowed objects, the thoughts of the minde chews over again; thus the minde is alwayes feeding; besides, the senses have no longer pleasure, or pain then the objects remain; but the minde is as much grieved, or delighted when the object is removed, as when they are present; As for example, a man is as much grieved when he hears his friend is dead, or kill’d, as if he saw him die, or slaine; for the dead fried lives in the minde, not the minde in the dead friend, and if a man have a fine house, or great riches, or an excellent rare race of horses, or the like, whereupon the minde takes as great delight in thinking of his fine house, as if it dwelt in the house, and as great delight in thinking of his riches, or what he could do with the use of his riches; for the minde doth not so much dwell in the house, as the house in the minde, nor the minde doth not take so much delight in the use of the riches, as the use to be in the minde, and the remembrance of the curious horses is as much in the minde, as when those horses were in the eye; for when the sense is filled, the minde can but think, and the minde may as well think when the objects are gone, as when they are present, and the minde may take as much delight, in thinking what the senses have enjoyed, as what they are to injoy, or desire to enjoy; for thoughts are the fruition of the minde, as objects the fruition of the senses; for the minde takes as much delight (if not more) in thinking of an absolute power, as when the commands of an absolute power is obeyed, for obedience dwells no more in the minde when it is acted, then it did before it was acted, or by the imagination that it is acted; thus the minde receives no more by action, then it doth by contemplation, onely when the pleasure of the senses are joyned with delightful thoughts, may be said to be more happy, though I beleeve the pleasure of senses draws the delight from the thoughts; for the more at rest the body is, the more busie the minde is imployed, and as torments of the minde are beyond the torments of the body, or at least the displeasure of the senses; so the delight of the minde is beyond the ease or rest of the body, or the pleasure of the senses.
Chap. 153. Of sleep and dreams.
Sleep is caused by a tirednesse of the spirits, for when the sensitive motions are tired, with the working on the dull parts of matter, which tirednesse is slacking the motions, or changing their motions, as when they work lasily, then the figure grows drousy, and the senses dull, being weary of pencelling, copying out objects upon the optick nerve. Likewise with printing letters, and setting notes on the drum of the ear, or in drawing platforms of several tasts, touches, and sents on the tongue and pores of the flesh, or striking, or playing on the nerves, and on the dia mater and pia mater, of the brain, but many times the figure grows drowsie, and the senses dull, when the sensitive motions are idle for want of work; that is, having no variety of objects presented to them; that is, of such kinde of works; for the innate matter never ceaseth to move, although the motions are not alwayes agil, and quick, nor after one and the same manner, but when they alter the motions, as I may say more proper then to slacken them, they do as it were cast anchor, pulling down their sail, going as it were under hatches, and the figure that is like a ship, where the motions of the breath are like waves of water, that heave it up, and then sink down, but saile not, nor steer not to any Coast; and the sensitive innate matter which is in this action, like Mariners when they work under the hatches drawing and winding up the slimy humours in the body, like ropes by attractive motions, staying and setling the loose parts, by retentive motions;* placing and putting disordered parts into their proper places by disgestive motions, and all the motions busiely imployed; some mending the figure, stopping the leaks, dearning, and sewing together the torne sailes, oyling and greasing the keel, pitching and tarring the cresses; tying and twisting the roaps, drawing the superfluous moisture to the gutter ready to be pumpt out, sweeping all the rubbish and dirt on a heap, ready to be flung out; some running up, and returning from the deck, which are the pores of the skin; but the rational innate matter, is the master of the Animal ship, and the sensitive innate matter, as the Saylors, those works on the dull part of matter, the other directs when occasion serves, that is, when the body is in action; for though the rational innate matter never labours on the dull part of matter, yet they counsel and direct the animal ship, when it is built, and set afloat, that is, when the body is come to the full growth, and orders it in blustrous storms, and great dangers, but these the rational innated matter, when this animal ship is cast to anchor, which is to sleep, moves onely in a rocking, or rowling motion, as it were from side to side of the cabbin, which is the brain, making no perfect figure nor gives direction, this is sleeping without dreaming; but dreaming is when they move in figures, making such figures as these objects, which have presented to them by the sensitive motions, which are onely pictures, or copies of the Original objects, which we call remembrance, for remembrance is nothing but a waking dream, and a dream is nothing but a sleeping remembrance, but if the sensitive innated matter moves in the same manner, on the same place, as printing and drawiug such figures or objects in the optick nerve, or setting such notes or letters on the drum of the ear, or drawing such platforms on the dura mater, or pia mater of their brain, or the tongue, flesh, or skin of their own accord, without the presence of the outward objects; then we see here taste, smell, touch, as strong as if we were awake, if their motions be as strong and industrious; but many times we have in sleep those objects but in part, and not in whole, the reason** is, that either the sensitive innated matter is slow, or else they are not so perfect Artists to work without a sampler, working by misplacing, and mistaking, or else works by halves, according to their skil, or as appetite moves them, make a hogpog, or gallimophry of many several pieces or draughts, into one figure or picture, which make extravagant dreams; by reason they work not in a methodical manner, and the rational innated matter, moving in the same manner makes a mixt resemblance, but the sensitive innate having not the outward objects in sleep to work by, seldom works perfect, or plain, and working imperfectly they move disorderly, and for the most part that which makes us so often perturbed in our sleeps, is, by moving crosse, and irregular, which crosse, Irregularity insnarles several motions, so as there is no distinction, which is the reason that our dreams are so often obscure, and dark, as we can make nothing of them; and when the rational innate matter moves crosse, and tumultuously, our dreams are most commonly fearful, and when the sensitive innated matter works so disorderly, our dreams are painfull, and when the sensitive innated matter works perfectly, and the rational innate matter moves justly, we have as much knowledge, and understanding of what we dream of, and as much satisfaction from our senses, as if we were awake, and the real abjects presented to us.
*a Sleep nonrisheth and gives health, and strength. b Nourishment. Fatching Strengthening. Knitting the muscles, nervs and the like. Urin to the bladder. Excrements into the guts. Vapors
**The innate matter can move slower then their strength, or natural agilnesse, but not above nor beyond their natural strength and agilnesse.
Chap. 154. Dreamings of living, and dead figures.
Those friends in acquaintance that that have been dead, a long time, and appear in our sleep, we never question the truth of their life, though we may question them how they lived; again, the reason is, that these figures are as perfect, and lively to our present senses in our sleep, as when we are awake; for oftimes the sleeping motion prints figures, on the inside of the optick nerve, as on the inside of the pia mater, as the waking motion doth on the outside, and when we hear them as it were discourse words, right on the inside of the drum of the ear, or pia mater, by the sensitive motion, as on the outside when we are awake; for all the sensitive works inwards asleep, as outward awake; for if we smell sents pleasing, or displeasing, the sensitive spirits draw lines, and set notes on the inside of the dura mater and pia mater of the brain; and so for taste and touch, they draw plateforms in the inside of the skin, either of the skin of the tongue, or any other outward parts of the body, as they do on the outside of the skin awake; Thus the senses present as perfect prints to the rational oft times in sleep, as awake, onely they print on the inside a sleep, and on the outside awake, and what rational creature would not beleeve their senses; for should a man see another man die, and see him buried, and afterwards should see that man alive again, and hear him speak, and touch him, shall feel the substance of flesh, would not he think he lived? Thomas the Apostle questions the relations of our Saviours resurrection from the grave, but never questioned his senses, when he saw, and touched him; so in our dreames, when the sensitive innate matter prints such figures on the optick nerve, as of such a person which is dead, the rational matter straight paterns out the sensitive print; and when the sensitive print, and the rational figure is just alike, the other motion of the rational matter cannot question the truth of that figure, or figures being there, though they may question how they come alive, again treating with it, as if awake, the same is if the sensitive innated prints, any thing as dead, which is living, and the rational pattern it, the rest of the rational motions make no question of the truth of those sleeping motions, untill waking motions otherwayes inform them; for rational motion in every particular figure, knows little of the sensitive, but what the senses shews them, in the several motions, yet the rational generally knows what they present unto them, which every particular sense doth not, each motion is unknown, and are strangers to each other in one and the same figure; for the ear knows not what the eye seeth, nor the eyes know not what the nose smelleth, nor the nose knows not what the tongue tasts, nor the tongue knows not what the body feels, but the rational innat matter in a figure, knows all the sensitive motions in the same figure, as long as the figure is perfect, and moves in an Animal way, and that the rational motion moves regular; for when the motions are irregular, they can take no perfect copies, nor notice how the sensitive move, that is, the reason that in perturbed passions, which are onely irregular motions, the senses become as it were uselesse to them, but most commonly the disorder of one brings the disorder of the other, I will not say at all times, and so when the sensitive spirits are regular, the rational is regular, but not at all times, for some times the one is regular, the other is not, but the rational which takes copies of the sensitives is oftener disordered by the sensitives, then the sensitives by the rational, for when there is grief in the minde, many times the body is in good health, but it is seldom known when the body is sick, but the minde is troubled.
Chap. 155. Of Local Dreames.
The reason that many times we dream of walking woods or houses, and the like, is through this following reason; The rational innate matter, as I often said before, turns most commonly into such figures, as the sensitive innate matter prints, or hath printed upon the senses, now if a tree or house, or the like, be printed on the inside of the pia mater, or the like sensitive part, when we are asleep, the rational innate matter straight figures them, these figures move after a local manner, although they have not an animal, or local shape; the reason is, that the rational innated matter being purer in it self, without the mixture of dull matter, moves onely in their own matter, and the figure moves in the matter; whereas the sensitive innated matter working upon the dull part of matter, moves in that dull matter, and not the dull matter in the sensitive innated matter, that is the sensitive innate matter moves in the dull part of matter, and the dull part of matter is moved by the sensitive innate matter; thus the sensitive figure is moved, but not moving, but the rational innated matters figures give their own motions; likewise if we have seen a battle, or heard of a battle, and afterwards we dream of the same, or of the like battle; then the rational innated matter puts its self into animal figures, and moves after a local manner, each figure placing it self after that manner or way as was related, or printed by the senses, or after away of its own invention, and when the figures encounter each other, as they must do to fight a battle in the brain; and then some seeme to be falling, and others dead, and some mangled; those figures are as falling and broken, and cease to move after the local manner; and when one party seems to move as in a confusion, then the motions are irregular, and just as the senses present, so doth the rational innated matter act in the brain when we sleep, and sometimes when we are awake, as in imagination.
Chap. 156. Of the senses, and the objects that pass through the senses.
That innate matter which I call the sensitive spirits makes* holes, which holes serve as doors in animal figures to receive outward objects, as the holes that are made in the eyes, ears, nostrils, mouth, and the pores of the skin, wherein the animal receives light, sound, scent, tast, and touch; the senses are brought and presented by the sensitive innated matter, to the rational innated matter, who takes knowledg thereof; as for example, there is a hous or a tree, or any the like gross material figure, these being placed beforethe passage of the eyes, those sensitive spirits, in the eye taking notice thereof, with the help of that brings the objects therein, strait prints or paints those objects upon the optick nerve, or upon the outside of the brain, as the dia mater, or pia mater, upon which the rational spirits view as on pictures, then copie them out, not by working on the dull part of matter, as the sensitives innated matter doth, but turn themselves by number and measure, into figures like those printed or painted figures; the difference is, that the rational matter is like sculptures, the others as pictures upon flats; these rational figures we call knowledg, or understanding, and as long as these rational figures last, though the object is absent, and the prints rub out, by other objects, or by distance of place, or the like, we call memory; but when those rational figures are dissolved, and afterwards repeated be wrought without a presentment of the senses, we call it remembrance, and the reason the memory is not so strong, as the present sense, nor the remembrance so perfect as the memory is; that with the present object there are two figures as the rational sculpture, and the sensitive point, when the memory is but one, as the sculpture, which remains as with the rational, but the sensitive print is rubbed or worn out, and the reason why remembrance is not so perfect, as the memory, is, because remembrance is but a copy of a copy, from the original print, for remembrance is but a pattern taken from the Memory, and the memory but a pattern taken from the objects. *I call that matter so for distinction.
Chap. 157. Of figure presented to the senses, and figures together.
The reason why figurative senses are quicker then the figurative growth, is, It is less labour in printing on the dull part of matter then in cutting out sculpt figures, not for the strength of actions, as for the several laborious actions therein, fetching their material a far way, and for many several places, which requires time and place, when printing is but a press laid upon a flat.
Chap. 158. Of objects, and the senses, something differing from the other Chapter.
That innate matter which I call the sensitive spirits for distinction sake, makes holes or doors in animal figures, to receive outward objects; as the ears, eyes, nostrils, mouth, pores of the skin, and the like, and these outward objects are presented, to that part of innate matter which I call rational spirits, but that part of innate matter I call sensitive spirits; as for example, thus, there is a house, or a tree, or any the like gross material figure; which is subject to the sense of animal figures, these standing at the doors of the eyes, which as soon as the sensitive spirits perceive, or other sensitive spirits that come in through these doors, strait print or draw the same figure upon the optick nerve, which optick nerve is made of dull matter, by the sensitive spirits from whence the rational spirits viewing from thence that picture, strait run themselves by number and measure into the likeness of that picture, which are those we call knowledg or understanding, and as long as those figures last among the rational spirits, though the objects are absent that we call memory, for when these prints are rubbed off by the sensitive spirits, and others placed thereon, or vaded by distance of place, or obscured by shutting the lids, yet the figure thereof may remain amongst the rational spirits, which is, as I said before, memory, and the repetitions of figures; that is, when one and the same figure was dissolved and created again amongst the rational, it is remembrance; but memory is not so strong as the present sense, nor the remembrance so perfect, as the memory and the reason is, that what the sensitive spirits wrought on the optick nerve, is like a printed or painted figure, and that which the rational spirits make is like a carved statue, like painting, or sculpture, so that in memory the sculpture remains, and in remembrance is created, although the printing, or painting is worn out, or rubbed out, so that the present senses have two figures, one upon the optick nerve, the other amongst the rational spirits, wherein memory remains but one, and the reason why remembrance is not so perfect as memory is, because it is but the copy of a copy from the original, for remembrance is but a pattern taken from the memory, and the memory but a pattern from the object.
Chap. 159. Of the figure of the head.
The figure of the brain gives strength to the sensitive motions, and to the rational knowledg in animals, for the scull being made with an arched rough, and the sides being hollow, and the whole head round, which hollow sides arched rough and round compass, cause rebounds* and reflections of the motions therein, which multiplie, increase, and strengthen them, as for the motions and figures of sound, the notes that are made are struck from the drum of the ear, as balls from a hand, to the concave part, and from thence rebound from side to side, and fall down, as a new note is raised, or like many balls struck one after another, so rebounds follow one another, and according as they are struck, so are the rebounds stronger or weaker, and according as they are* repeated, so do they last; the same for sight, for * lines piercing from the optick nerve, darting on the concave parts reflect, and these reflections cause double lines, which make the sensitive figures on the optick nerve appear plain to the rational figure, but if they rebound, and reflections be disorderly returned by disordered motions, they make a confusion, both in the sense, and rational knowledg, as for tast, it strikes from the nerves of the tongue, upon the brain, besides the hollow cave of the mouth, and according as the rebounds are made, and the strokes are struck, the taste is stronger or weaker, but if the brain be stuff’d with cold, then the concaves being stuft and so stopp’d where the rebounds should return, cause the taste to be weak, insomuch as not to be sensibly felt; and for touch, the pores of the skin and flesh are hollow; wherein rebounds are made, striking from side to side of each pores; and we finde by experience that those parts which are not hollow, have not so strong a sense as those that are hollow: Again, if the nerves from whence the strongest strokes are struck be 〈◊〉 slack, the sense is weak.
As for scent which is brought through the nostrils of the nose, like water through spouts, which dilates its self through the brain circling the pia mater, swelling, flowing and ebbing, like to the sea about the earth, which when it flows it is strong, but when it ebbs it is weak.
But by reason scent is made by streaming motions, and not striking and retorting motions. As the other four senses are, it retaines not so long in the memory as the others do, although it may last longer in the brain or head, being more lasting, most commonly for the present then the rest are, for a stinke will remain in the brain a great while, and so will strong perfumes.
*As we finde in Churches, and caves made hollow arched, a noise sounds loudest. **Lines of light may be made by the sensisitive spirits on the side of the optick nerve as on the outside, as in sleep.
Chap. 160. Of Sight.
The general opinion is, that all objects come through the optick nerve, and print the figures received on the brain, and that there are, nor can be no figures in the brain, but what the opticks bring in, and have passed through the eye; it is true, by experience we finde, that without an eye, we cannot see an outward object, as they are without us, yet we see those objects, as they are without us in our sleep when our eyes be shut; thus the sense of seeing is not lost, although the eyes were out, and the optick nerves stopped up. But some will say, those objects in dreams have past through in part, or in whole, therefore the question will be, where an animal can have an insight, if it were born blinde; but if it be so, as the opinion is, that no figure, or insight can be, but what comes, or hath passed through the eye, and optick nerve, must want that sensible knowledge; for according to that opinion, the ear can do the understanding no service as toward that sense, by reason sound can make no figure to sight, neither will taste, nor sent; but some may say, touch may discover somewhat of that sense to the understanding, but I think not; for in my opinion, touch is as senssesse to insight as sound; for we cannot comprehend more of touch then of sound, for depth and breadth are no more to insight, then high notes, and low notes, nor soft nor hard, no more to insight then swift, and slow, sharp, or flat, nor pleasure, nor pain, no more then harmony, and discord; but my opinion is, that figures are as inherent to the minde, as thoughts; And who can have an unfigurative thought, for the minde cannot have thoughts, but upon some matter, and there is no matter but must have some figure, for who can think of nothing; but the minde is like infinite nature, having no dimension, or extention, no center, nor circumference, no breadth, no depth, and as the innat matter creates figures, so the minde, which is the matter creates thoughts, which thoughts, are the figures of the minde; for when we hear of a deity, we say in words it is an incorporeal thing; but we cannot conceive it so in thought, we say we do, but we cannot prove we do; Tis true, the minde may be in a maze, and so have no fixt thought of any particular thing; yet that amaze hath a figurative ground, although not subscribed; as for example, my eyes may see the sea, or air, yet not the compasse, and so the earth, or heavens; so likewise my eye may see a long pole, yet not the two ends, these are but the parts of these figures, but I see not the circumference to the uttermost extention, so the mind in amaze, or the amaze of thinking cuts not out a whole and distinct figurative thought, but doth as it were spread upon a flat, without a circumference, and though there are not such figures in the* brain, as it brought through the opticks, yet such figures as the minde creates; for the minde is innate matter, and innat matter is self-motion, and self-motion, is alwayes moving, and working, which working is figuring; thus the sensitives innated matter prints figures iu the brain, and the rational innated matter creates figures in the brain after its own invention, which are imagination and conception, wherein are made imaginary worlds, without the materials of outward objects: and perchance these motions may create such a figure as this world, and such several figures, as the several creatures therein, although not so solid and lasting, because those motions want those grosse materials, of which they should create it withal; but the sensitive innated matter in this cause, prints these figures upon the brain by patterning the rational figures created in the brain, like as when it doth the outward objects, and when the sensitive innate matter works on the inside, as in sleep, then it gives an insight, which are dreams according to their copied prints, and these motions may make lines of light, triangular lines, for colours set notes of tunes, draw plat-forms* of taste, and sent, make prints of touch, not onely the rational innated matter, by imagination; but the sensitive innated matter gives a sensible touch on the brain of all the outward senses, by which touch, I mean sensible knowledge; thus the interior motions may move the brain with the variety of every sense, without the exterior passages, or objects,* and although it may not make those very objects and subjects; yet such as are proper for each sense, and of the same nature as I said before, draw lines of light, gathering motions make clouds, triangular motions make colours, insnarled motions make darknesse without the outward object, and all other motions that make several figures, or printed figures.
_All innate matter is as the minde, or life of nature._ **_All without outward help_ **_The property of each sense.
Likewise reflections without the help of the eye and so rebounds, and retorts; for sound, and set notes print words, and plain tunes without the ear; so likewise for taste, sent, and touch; but when the brain is filled withoutward objects, the natural motion seldom works after their own invention, having not room as it were, or else it is as it were overpowred with work, having more objects brought in, then they can either conveniently place or sort, or distinguish; but weak minds, which are slow moving matter, think life an insensible thing, and the head, or brain empty of figures, when it is not filled with outward objects, like as a barrel is not* filled with liquor, thinks it empty, because the thin air with which it is filled, is not subject to their grosse senses, so not to their weak capacities. *Fools have lesse rational innated matter in their braines, then those that are wise.
Thus it is not the outward objects that make the sense, but the innate matter, which is self motion, which is the sense and knowledge, and the different motions therein, and therefrom, make the differences thereof, and though different sense and knowledge, may be in different, and several figures, and such kind of sense & knowledge proper for such kind of sorts of figures; yet the figure adds nothing to the sense, and knowledge, although the innated matter may give a figure such a kind of sense and knowledge and when that figure dies, that kinde of sense and knowledge may alter, which was proper to that kinde of figure; yet if it were the figure that gave the sense, and knowledg, and not the innated motions, there would be no alteration when the figure is made, or any extraordinary passion, whereby experience we finde the sense, and knowledge do alter all, though the figure be perfect, and in health.
Chap. 161 Of Light and Colours. LIght and colour is made upon the optick nerve, as sound on the drum of the ear, for light the sensitive innated matter draws long, straight, smal, even lines, upon the optick nerve, and when colours are made, notes are set upon those lines, drawn upon the optick nerve as thus.
Of colours, are when those lines are set with quavor, semy quavor.
But light is onely when those lines are drawn without those quavors, semy-quavors, but as we shall see plain song books, after this manner.
And the knowledg the rational innated matter takes thereof, is when they move in plain lines, when they move in figures and lines, they move for colours.
Chap. 162. Of Blindnesse.
Blindnesse proceeds from many causes, as when the cristalline part of the eye is not clear; for if it be dimming, or failing, or spotted and foul, the objects seem muddy, and misty, and as the water of the cristaline is coloured, so the objects appear; for as Diamonds, some are of a black water, others of a yellow water, some of a green water, or blue, others of a white water; so is the cristalline part of several eyes, and according as it is clear, or coloured, so all objects appear.
A second defect may be in the ball of the eye; for according to the compasse of the concave, or convex thereof, the objects are presented neerer, or at a further distance, or longer or shorter, or broader, or narrower.
A third defect may be in the eye hole; for according to the largenesse, or littlenesse thereof, objects are presented, either in whole, or in part, bigger, or lesser, more, or fewer objects enter at once; for if the eye-lid hole should be too large, the species would disperse too much, disuniting parts and figures, and if too small, the species cannot passe in ranck and file, as I may say; for though the smaller the circle is, the closer it contracts the species, and draws the objects into a straighter line; yet if they should passe in a crowd, they will stop the mouth of the passage, like water in a glasse when turned suddenly downward, every drop striving to get out first hinders each others so in the strife, as none can passe.
A fourth defect may be in the optick nerve, if it be full of slime, and the like, it darknens the sight, stopping the passage of the light, or if it be shrunk, or dried up, likewise if the head be full of grosse vapours, it obscures the sight, as a thick mist doth the sun; for this foul foggy, and grosse vapors hinder the species from entring, and the sensitive innated matter that should print these objects, on the optick nerve, and if they are not quite stopt, yet it hinders the regularity, making that innated matter to work by piece-meales, or else staies not so long, as to take a perfect survay.
The fift and sixth defect may be, if the eyes move too quick, or too slow, which makes the sight imperfect, or dull; for too quick motions of the eye dazles the sight, and clips and cuts the exterior objects into so many parts, as no one part can be perfectly known, or seen; and too slow motion blunts the sight like a sharp point that is struck upon a stone, or the like; besides, when it is fixt too long upon one object, other objects passe by before it removes, or wearies it so much as one cannot take notice of it; But when the eyes are too quick, it is by reason the nerve strings that tie and fasten the ball of the eye to the head, are too slack, which makes the eye ball so loose as the least motion moves it, or else these nervous strings are too small which makes them so weak, as every little motion moves, so as they are alwayes in motion as it were; for if the nerves, and sinew-strings be too small for the weight of the eye ball, it may alwayes have a trembling motion, like a sthe aspen, or like weights that cannot poise steddy, as long as there is a disproportion; and when the eyes are too slow the reason is when the sinews, or nerve-strings, are so short tied, or shrunk up, so that it holds the eye ball too hard, or too straight, giving it not liberty to stir, and turn from side to side, or to role about.
A seventh defect may be when the eyes look asquint, as it may do two several wayes; the one is when the ball of the eye is tied too short, by the nervous string towards the nose, by which the balls of either eye, are drawn so much inward to each other, as to look at each other; but that they are some wayes hindered by the nose, this makes the lines or points; that shoot from either eye, to meet acrosse, which makes all exterior objects to look double; but if the eye string ties the balls of the eyes too short towards the temples it draws the points from the center, and the eyes out of the natural bias which causeth a side look, as seeing two several wayes at once, but neither way perfectly, by reason that the lines that issue from the eyes, lie not level, neither can those lines meet upon an object, in a triangular, which joyns the sight of each eye into a point, which makes sight so much the stronger.
Thus if the strings be too loose, or too hard, or too small, or that the optick is shrunk up, or the eye-lid-hole covered with some scale, or filme, or the eye-lid-hole too little or too big, or the christalline full, or the brain full, or too many vapours continually ascending from the bowels, or stomach, or if the eye be too quick, or too slow, it is a great defect in sight; But if the passage be quite stopped up, of the strings or christalline part be broke, those are irrecoverably blinde.
Chap. 163. Of Hearing.
After the same manner is the sense received at the ear, onely the difference is, that instead of drawing, printing the outward objects, received through the eye, printed on the optick nerve, so the sensitive innated matter, sets, or pricks down notes, and draws lines on the drum of the ear, as musicians do upon paper, or the like; and the sensitive innated matter in making them run, and make stops according as the vocal sound is set, and it is louder, or lower, according as they work weaker or stronger, but for the verbal, it is writ, 〈◊〉 printed on the drum of the ear in letters, for words, and the knowledge the animal figure takes, is when the rational innated matter moves according to those letters or notes, or wayes of division: but in a confused sound there is no order, time, nor stop kept, nor no perfect note, nor letter, nor line prick’d, or printed, or drawn, but, as we vulgarly say, it is all scrible-scrable, or else ciphers set for notes; and like as it is to the opticks, so it is to the ear, for the notes and letters, as the pictures which fade; for as the outward motions slacken, so the vocal and verbal sound dissolves; and the memory and remembrance of sounds, vocal and verbal, is as the sense of the objects on the opticks.
Chap. 164. Of Articular sounds, or sounds without distinction.
It is strange if we consider that one word should strike so many several ears, and so to be heard perfectly, by every particular ear; but surely to my reason one word or note cannot fill so many ears, as can stand to hear it: again, it is strange that a word should directly hit into every ear that stands to hear it, I will not say alwayes, for sometimes a word is spoke two or three times over, although the ear be clear before it can hit the entrance, but that is but seldome; but in my opinion it is not a single word that runs about from ear to ear, for then all would not hear at once, for if there were a multitude, the last ear might not hear a week after, or at least a day after it had been spoken. Wherefore in my opinion it must be after this manner, the mouth, tongue, and breath formes not onely a single word, but millions in one lump, with the same labour of pains, as for one word; as for example, take a sheet of paper, or the like, and fold it into many folds, in a small compass, and stamp a print thereon, and every fold shall have the like print with one stamp, and until they are parted they stick so close as if they were but one printed body, when every fold is divided by the stamp with the print thereon; so likewise the mouth folds up thin air, and the tongue gives the printed stamp, which being cast forth like a ball of wilde-fire, disperseth in a crack or sound, and then suddenly spreads about in several streams; thus millions of words run about in lines of air, passing in all pores and hollow bodies, as the ear or the like, concaves as hollow wood and vaults, where finding resistance, rebounds back in repetitions, and according to their strength, or the strength of their bearing motions, they pierce farther and fall shorter, and according to the freeness of the passage, they sound louder, clearer, lower, or duller, and according to their stamp they are perfect or imperfect.
After the same manner is all distinct sounds, notes being printed as words, but sounds without distinction, are like stamps without prints, that is plain pieces of air, but if the ear be stopped, the sound is lost to the brain, I will not say to natural sense, for surely the brain is not the whole ingrosser of that and the like sensitive knowledg, neither will say the animal head ingrosses all that sort of tempered matter, or that no passage can conveigh a sound but the animal ear. But most probably all sounds spread as lights; as for example, a small candle will enlighten a large compass, by reason rayes of light streame equally from the center candle to the circumference; so is sound: for when a pistol, or any the like shots of a bullet, the pistol, or that which makes the sound, is the center which spreads sound as fire doth light, and when such a compass of air is filled with sound, either vocal or verbal, every ear that stands in the compass must needs receive the sound if they 〈◊〉 not deaf; likewise every eye may see day-light, that is not blinde, and the rebounds of sound are as the reflections of light, and verbals are received into the ear, as figures into the eyes; and as cross lines of light make various colours, so different notes make various tunes: But some may say, that if the air were full of one and the same words, or notes, that more would enter the ears then was sent. I say that is impossible, unless the ear could draw the spreading, or streaming lines from the circumference to a point, which the ear cannot.
But I believe art may do the same for sound as it can with light; for art can draw with glasses made for that purpose, many beams to appoint, but if the eyes did so, it would burn them out.
Also they can draw several species, through a small hole.
I believe artificial echoes, are or may be made after such a manner.
Chap. 165. Of taste, touch, and smell.
These senses are made by such motions as sound is, and as they are set on the drum of the ear, so these are set on the nerves of the tongue, or on the skin, for when the skin is off our tongue, we cannot taste; likewise for* touch, they are set on the nerves, and sinnews; and when these notes are set harmoniously, it pleaseth the senses, otherwise it displeaseth them, which displeasure is pain amongst the sensitive innated matter, and hate amongst the rational innate matter. As for scent, they are motions that draw like lines, like a plat-form upon the pia mater of the brain; indeed the second draught of the sensitive innated matter, is to draw all their figures upon the pia mater of the brain.
*As for touch the pores of the flesh are like harpsical keys, and the nerves like the wyer strings, which move when those keyes are touch’d, which cause pleasure or pain, like discord, or harmony, according as they are struck or plaid upon.
Chap. 166. Of Touch.
Touch is the general sense of the whole body, which the other senses are not; for though every part of the body is of a several touch, yet it is all touch; When sight onely belongs to the eyes; sound onely to the ears; scent onely to the nostrils; and taste onely to the tongue; besides the loss of any of these senses, nay all of them, may be wanting, as if they were not belonging to life, as indeed they are not, but onely as conveniencies to the life, but not of necessity; whereas touch is as it were the life of the figure, for when this sense is generally wanting in the animal figure, it is as we say dead; that is, the natural motion belonging thereto, is generally altered, or quite changed, as we say. This sense is received through the pores of the flesh, and the nerves are the instrumental strings whereon motion playes, either a harmony of pleasure, or a discord of pain, for as their strings are struck, so is pain or pleasure felt, but I have treated sufficiently of this sense in my chapter of numb’d palsies.
Chap. 167. Of the pores of the body.
The pores are passages which let out the smoke or vapor, unnatural heat, and the superfluous humors in the body; also they are passages to let in comfortable warmth, refreshing colds, nourishing air; these passages have their inconveniencies, for they are a means to conveigh out the good with the bad; and many times takes in infections, as malignant diseases that passe through the pores, for infection comes in as much through the pores, as any other part of the body.
Besides, many times the radical moisture is carried out by unnatural heats, and sometimes the vital spirits by too many transparations; but these pores passages are drawn or shut closer together by contracting motions, or set wider open by extenuating motions; but if these common and necessary passages to the interiour parts be 〈◊〉 close shut, either by cold contractions, or hot contractions, it smoothers and choakes the vital parts by keeping the vapor, or smoke that should go forth, for the pores in this case are as the funnels of chimneys, wherein the smoke ascends up, and goeth out, and if they are set too wide open by the extenuating motions, they cause the body to starve, by giving passage to such matter as should be kept in to feed the body, or by giving too free passage, to the natural moisture, that should quench or temper the heat in the body, or by giving too free a passage to the gadding spirits that should stay in the body, to be imployed to the substance and strength thereof; besides, when they are too open they are as apt to take in, by giving passage to that which is a prejudice to the 〈◊〉 of the body, as infections, malignity, or unnatural colds, or the like.
But the pores of the body are always imployed, where the other passages of the body are imployed but some times.
The NATVRAL WARS In ANIMAL FIGVRES.
All animals after they are created, and have an animal life, the figure is inlarged by nourishing motions, and sympathetical matter, these nourishing motions are disgesting motions, carrying those parts which are received by the senses, unto those parts that are created therein, building thereon, and fitting therewith, strengthning by adding thicknesse, as well as inlarging by extention, yet all that is received into the stomack, is not nourishing, the reason is that the temperament of the matter, is not sympathetical, that is agreeing not with the motions therein; For though it is not so antipathetical to make an open war, which war is sicknesse, yet they do hinder, and obstruct, like several factions, those natural motions which make health; but when the natural motions and tempers of humours are quite opposite to the food that is received, or the unnatural humours bred in the body by evil digestion, they become mutanous by the quantity that is received, or that ariseth from obstructions, whereupon there becomes a fierce and cruel fight of contrary motions, and temperaments of matter, and whilest they are in the battle, we say the body is sick, and if the natural motions be not strong enough, to beat that evil, and dangerous matter out, or at least able to resist them so far, as to guard themselves until the evil parts do spend themselves with their own fury, or till the natural motions, and temperaments can have some assistance, as cordials, or physick, it destroyes the figure it fights with; but if the natural motions be more powerfull, either by their own strength, or by their assistance, then the mutinous and rebellious humours, or the foreign enemy, as surfets, and the like; but when they are beaten out, killed, or taken prisoners, which is to be purged, corrected, or purified, which makes the humours obedient, and peaceable.
Chap. 168. Of the four natural Humours of the Body, and those that are inbred.
As there is natural Fire, Aire, Water, and Earth, that is made by an intire creation derived from their own proper principles.
As likewise a metamorphosed Fire, Aire, Water, and Earth.
So there are humours in Animal bodies, and in other bodies; for all I can perceive, and though the bodies cannot be metamorphosed, yet the humours may.
But in every Animal body there is natural Melancholy, Choler, Flegme, and blood; the natural blood is the vital vapor; the natural Flegme is the radical moisture; the natural Choler is the radical heat, the natural Melancholly is the animal spirits, being the highest extract.
And if we do but observe those that be naturally melancholly, have the soundest judgements, the clearest understanding, the subtilest observation, and curiousest inventions, the most conceptions, the finess fancies, and the readiest wits; likewise the strongest passions, and most constant resolution. but humours which are inbred as flegme, choler, and Melancholy are made as Metamorphosed fire, aire, water, slime mud, and earth, as for example, the chylus is the matter that is metamorphosed.
The dilating motions transform it from chylus to slime, from slime to water, from water to blood, from blood to vapor, from vapor to comfortable and lively heat, from comfortable and lively heat, to burning fevers and hectick fevers, and the like.
Likewise the chylus by contracting motions, turns from chylus to slime.
If they be cold contractions, it turns from slime to flegme, from flegme to heavy melancholly.
If hot contractions, it turns from chylus to temperat choler; from temperat choler to choler adust, from choler adust, to melancholly; which from a slimy humour to a muddy humor, from a muddy humour, to an earthy dry humour.
Some sort of hot contractions make it sharp, some salt, some bitter.
Likewise, several sorts of salts, sharpnesse, and bitternesse, are wrought with mixt motions, cold contractions make the humour, glassy, and stony.
Hot contractions make the humours tough, clammy glutenous and stony.
Hot dilatings make the humour oylie, cold dilations watry.
Likewise, mixt motions makes mixt humours, and mixt tempers inclining to each side, as the motions predominate.
Chap. 169. The five natural Maladies of the body.
EVery diseased figure is either pained, sick, dissy, numb, weak, or mad, sometimes they meet all in one figure, these are distinct senses one from another; as for pain, although every several part of the body hath different sense, yet they agree in the general, as to be all pain.
But sicknesse is quite different from pain, for it is another,* sense; for to have a pain in the stomach, is not to be sicke in the stomach; neither is any part of the body, but the stomach is liable to this sense; the head may ake, and the heart may ake, heel, or any part of the body; but none but the stomach can be sick; Indeed it is a different sense from pain. Thirdly, a swimming, or diseases in the head, are different from both the other, it is a third sort of sense, neither is any other part of the body subject to this disease, but the head not properly, yet faintnesse, or weaknesse is a disease, as it were tempered with the three former diseases, as to have pain, sick, and dissy, or swimming, to be mixt or compounded into one disease, but it is so mixt and compounded into all three, as neither is perfectly or distinctly felt; so as it is no distinct sense* this disease is generall to the whole body. The fift is madnesse, this sense is neither painful, nor sick, nor dissy, but light in the head, which is different from dissy or swimming; but this disease infecteth with a distemper, the five outward senses. The last is a numbnesse, and deadnesse of particular parts; and sometimes of the whole body; but this disease is not onely a different sense, but an other nature, which is naturally unknown to the figure; for the figure is not any wayes sensible thereof; indeed it is of the nature of sowning; for those that sown, the motions of the animal sense, and minde are quite altered for a time, but then the animal motions return, that is, rechanged to the proper motions again, so that those dead parts that cannot be restored to the sense of touch, are as it were in a continual sown, for though in a sown the exterior motion are proper to the sense of touch is changed, yet the interior motions proper to the consistence, of that figure are not changed; for if the interior consistent motions were changed, it would turn to alienation, so in dead palsies, if the interior consistent motions were changed, those parts would corrupt as do dead carcases.
Numb palsies, ie different from dead palsies as fainting from sowning; for fainting is in the next degree to a sown, so a numb palsie, is the next degree to dead palsies.
*The head ake is different from the tooth ake, or stomack ake, and so every part, be it never so small, differs. **As sauces may be equally mixt with several sorts of things, as none can tast any one thing in it.
Chap. 170. I will treat first of the motions that make sicknesse.
The motions that cause sicknes are different according as the sicknes is, or rather the sicknesse is according to the different motions; for some motions are like the ebbing and flowing tides of the sea; For the humor furdles, or folds upwards, as the flowing tide, which most commonly provokes* to cast, as overflowing the mouth of the stomack, but when the humour folds backward, as the ebbing waters do, that provokes to the stool; for as falling tides run from one place, they* flows to another, so when the humour fals back from the mouth of the stomack, it overflows the belly, but if the humour neither overflows the belly, nor the mouth of the stomack,* it runs into the nerves, like as the water runs through the earth, and as the water breaks forth by springs, so doth the Humor by several 〈◊〉 eumes.
_Like the over flowing of banks._ **_Ebbing from the mouth of the stomack as from the river._ **Like low marshy grounds.
Again, some sorts of sicknesse in the stomack, are made by such kinde of motions as water boyling in a pot, over the fire, for as ebbing and flowing motions are running backward, and so forward, so boyling motions, are rising upward, and falling downward, there is as much difference in these motions, as betwixt vaughting and running; but these rising motions cause vapours to the head, for the thin parts which rise highest, when their rising strength failes, fall not hastily down again, but gather to a more solid body, as vapor from the earth doht into clouds, these clouds cause the dimnesse and darknesse of the sight, obstructing the light that is brought by the optick nerves. Again, there are other sorts of sicknesse in the stomack, caused by such motions, as are like the rolling of a barrel, the humour turning about in the figure of a barrel, which figure, or the like, is somewhat bigger in the middle, then the two ends, this humour in the stomack is most commonly tough and thick, being more united, and somtimes one end of this humour is as set upward, and the other downward, and so turned as a barrel with the head upward, and sometimes moved as a barrel the longest way on the ground, these motions cause neither purging by vomits, nor stool, but thrust out into cold sweats; for though these are not so strong dilating, or expulsing motions as ouer 〈◊〉, which forceth to vomit, or to purge, yet it extenuates by thrusting weakly out into a faint sweat, then there are other sorts of sickness, which are caused by such motions, as if meat were turning about on a spit, for the center of the humor removes not out of the place, although the circumference turns about; this is a constant sickness, and the stomach hath no ease, untill the humor is taken out of the stomach by some stronger motions; as you would take a spit from the fire, or by 〈◊〉 motions, to hold the humor from turning: so there are millions of several motions, which makes several sicknesses in the stomach, for though the stomach can be but sick, yet the sickness is not always after one and the same manner.
Chap. 171. Of the motions which cause pains.
Pain is caused not onely by irregular motions, but cross motions, or rather, as I may say, jumbling motions; that is, motion beats upon motion, or, as I may say, runs upon each other, thronging and justling each other; and several sorts of pain in several parts of the body, are caused by different, cross, or beating motions, but if they be dilating motions, they beat upon one another, by shufling outward, like as foolish women do for place, tumbling upon each other to get foremost; those painful motions turn to sores, and putrifie, because dilating motions make moisture, and being perturbed, make corruption, but if they be such contracting motions which cause pains, they turn those parts that are pained to be harder, then naturally those parts are, as the stone dry liver, or brain, or the like; but if those pains be made of mixt motions, as some beat inward, and some outward, and so run cross, they are hard swelling that extends to the exterior parts, but will not break, as the King’s Evil, or Gouts that lie in the flesh, or Sciatica, and many the like; for though the extenuating motions would burst out, yet the contracting motions keep in, and being both equally strong, neither get the better, for the time the pain is; and if the pain be amongst the sinews, it is caused either by contracting motions or 〈◊〉 motions, but not mixt, but as it were divided; for if it be extenuating motions, 〈◊〉 sinews are irregularly stretch’d too far; if contracting or atracting motions, they irregularly draw, or pull, or gather the sinews strings too short; if the paines be in the bones, they are onely cross motions, as if one should run one against the other, yet neither shuff backward nor push forwards, being equally strong; if in the flesh they are intangled motions, which make it incline towards black, as to seem purple, or read, or black.
And if the pain be in the skin, they are pricking motions, as if a needle should draw a thread in and out upon a cloath, or the like, but in every pained part there is some difference in the manner of motions, although not in the nature of the motions.
Chap. 172. Of swiming or dissiness in the head.
Dissiness and swimming in the head is made by several sorts of motions, of such vapor as is condensed into winde, if winde be condensed, if not, it is rarified vapor turned into winde; and the agilness of the motions therein, causeth the force thereof, by an often repetition, giving no time for a repulse: but howsoever winde is made, either by rarification, or condensation, it is winde most commonly, which causeth that we call a swimming and dissiness in the head;* for this condensed or rarified vapor, (which you will) when it is expulsed, flies violently about, carrying or driving whatsoever is bearable, loose or moveable along, or about with it, according to the strength thereof; and if this winde be in those veins which incompass and run through the brain, it carries the bloud therein, with such an extraordinary and swift motion about the head, or brain, as it carries the senses, as it were, along with it, which makes the diseased think the brain turned round in the head, when it is onely the vapor, that wheels round therein, or about; but the lasting strength wasting by the violent swiftness, brings but a short trouble to the diseased, and seldom or never causeth a ruine, unless there be some vein broken by the violence thereof; but if it be a windy vapor, in the 〈◊〉 and larger parts of the head, it sometimes will gather like a ball, or like that we 〈◊〉 a spinning top, which spins about in the brain, whilest it hath strength, and when the strength fails, the spinning motion is done, and the vapor disperseth, so the dissiness ceaseth; at other times those vapors will move like a whirlwinde, moving ascendingly, in lesser and lesser circles, until it brings a circle to a point in the shape of a pyramid; and when the strength abates, or that it breaks it self against more solid matter, the vapor disperses and so expulses, but this sort of motions is so violent, as it causes the diseas’d to fall, but soon to recover, for what is supernaturally violent cannot last long. *I think it is rar fied vapor, because it is so easily dispersed.
Chap. 173. Where the brain turns round, or not in the head.
Although thin vapor may get betwixt the skull and the brain, and likewise slimy humor; yet I imagine not that the brain is loose from the skull, so as to flap, flash, or to strike against the sides of the skull, when the head is moved, or to turn round, although it is a common phrase, to say, my brain turns round in my head, when they are dissie; but imagine it is not in the brain that turnes round, but the vapor or the humor therein; it is true, the brain turns round, when the whole body turns round, but so as it turns round with the head, as one part, not in the head as a part by it self; and the reason that the dissiness is cured by turning the contrary way, is, that the sensitive motions therein are turned toward their moderate, naturall, and accustomed manner of moving; for the violence of turning round, forces the sensitive motions, as the winde doth the air, or water, driving all one way, as before it, or rather like* a scrue, or a wheel that windes up those motions, as thread upon a spindle, and so unwinds the contrary way. *The stronger motions forceth the weaker to their wayes.
Chap. 174. Of the sound or noise in the head.
When there is a thin vapor got into the head, as betwixt the skull and the brain, and runs about in Circular lines as a string about a wheele, it makes a humming noise, as a turning wheel doth, and the more by reason the head as well as the vaporous lines is spherical, and though the brain may stick close to the scull, yet not so close but a thin vapor may get betwixt; but if the vapor be gathered into little hollow balls like cymbals, and runs about the head, it causeth a noise like those cymbals, as a tickling or gingling noise.
But if the vapour in the head hath intermitting motions, the sound is like musical instruments, for the stops like notes, make the divisions according to the several motions in the head, is the sound made therein, although the ear is stopp’d without.
Chap. 175. Of Weakness.
Sowning is caused by the obstruction of the spirits, or too great evacuations, or when any thing suppresses, or laies siege to the heart, or head, they being the magazine of the life of the body, wherein the least disorder is like fire to gunpowder: Weakness is caused by a too much relaxing of the sinews, and small fibres of the body, which are like laths to an house, and flesh like the morter laid thereon. The bones like the strong timber rafters and beams therein, which when the morter is worn off, the laths are apt to loosen; so when the body is lean, the flesh is wasted, the sinews are apt to slacken.
Again, some are weak, by reason the sinews are boyl’d too tender, as too much towards a jelly, which the body will be after moist extenuating diseases, as after extraordinary sweatings, small pox, measels, or the like, or in hydropical diseases.
Weakness is in a degree to death, as being towards a final or general expulsion of the figure.
Chap. 176. Of numb and dead palsies.
A Dead palsie is not onely made by mis-tempered matter, and disordered motions, but by unnatural motions, as improper to the nature of that kinde of figure, working, or mis-working most commonly upon the exterior parts, drawing up or shutting close those passages that should be open, working by contrary motions, from the nature of the figure, which causes insensibility, but as long as the vital parts be untouch’d, which are the stewards, and trustees, to the life of the body, which are to dispose, discharge, and direct, to take in and lay out, for the subsistance of the body (as I may say) as long as these are untouch’d, the life of the body may subsist, although the other particular parts be as we say dead, or lost to the natural use of the body. A numb palsie is of the same nature, but not of the same degree; as for comparison, a dead palsie is, as if a door, for common and necessary passage, should be close shut and lock’d, or nail’d up; and a numb palsie is as if the door or doors should be half open, and according as it is open, or shut, the numb palsie is more or less, but both dead; and numb palsies are occasioned by some unnatural contractions, for if it were by some unnaturall expulsions, the parts infected would rot, and fall from the other parts, as 〈◊〉, which certainly are caused by such kind of unnatural expulsions, as dead palsies are of unnatural contractions; thus we finde by experience, that they are unnatural contractions, that cause dead palsies, because they do not rot.
Wherefore in these diseases there must be applied opening medicines that work dilatively, and if they be caused from a cold contraction, then hot dilating medicines must be applied, but if they proceed from hot contractions, the cold dilating medicines must be applied; but the difficulty and skill will be to finde whether they proceed from cold, or heat, although most commonly, all physicians do apply in these diseases, very hot and dry medicines, which are contracting, which medicines are quite contrary to the nature of the diseases, which makes them cure so few, but the surest way is to apply dilating medicines, whether hot or cold.
Chap. 177. Of that we call a sleepy numbness.
A Sleepy numbness is also caused by obstruction or stoppages; as for example, if any over-burthensome weight lies upon the arm, or hand, or the like, it will become numb, which is vulgarly called sleepy; the reason is, that pressing too hard upon those parts, we stop the pores, which by touch is received; for if the pores be close shut, touch cannot enter, no more then if the eye be shut an outward object can enter, or stopping the ears, or nose, a sound, or scent can enter; as we may finde by experience; for if any part is bound too hard, it strait becomes numb, likewise a violent blow; or when any part is tied too hard, that part becomes numb, the reason is, by striking or thrusting back the bloud; for the bloud is like a running company, which when they are forcibly beaten back, on those companies that are thrusting forward, unite by contraction into so firm a body, that no particular part can stir; which solid and thick body stops the pores of the 〈◊〉, and the running motions in the veines; but also as we give liberty by uniting, or unbinding, or by taking off waight, or by gently rubbing, to open the pores, and disperse the bloud, it is cured.
Likewise the sleepy numbness may proceed from a superfluity of vapor, which flying to the pores for vent may stop the passage, by too great a concourse, being more vapor then sudden vent; but any alteration of motion cures it, by dispersing the vapor, more thin and evenly.
Chap. 178. Of the head feeling numb.
When the skins which wrap up the brain, as the pia mater, and dia mater, are contracted by an inward cold, or an outward cold taken in at the nose, ears, mouth, or pores of the skin, they shrivel, or are drawn in as a handkerchief, or the like; when we carry some bulk within it, and when those skins are drawn into a straiter compass, then the nature is, it presses upon the brain, as being too strait, wherein the brain cannot freely move. Besides, the veins and little small strings that run about the brain, being contracted with cold, the bloud in those veins cannot so freely run, and those strings being shrunk, make the brain feel as if it were so hard bound, as to be numb; but this doth rather afright the life of the diseased, then destroy it; for a little warmth by rubbing the head, or a hot cloth laid on the head, or some warm spoon-meat cures it.
Also numbness may proceed from too much bloud in the veins, or too much matter in the nerves, for being too full causeth a stopping, for want of space or room to move naturally in; but this numbness is not so easily cured, especially when the oppressions lie in the nerves, for opening a vein gives liberty to the bloud; but I know not how one should so easily open a nerve, neither is the matter within so liquid, as suddenly to run out; but this numbness is rather of the nature of a dead numbness, then a sleepy numbness.
Chap. 179. The manner of motion, or disorder in madness.
The motions that make that extravagancy we call madness, is as a carver, or painter, ingraver, printer, or the like, should place the figures they work, the wrong end upwards; or as if Mathematicians should draw a plat-form, and should make a square where a circle should be, or should put equall weights in uneven scales, or set false numbers, or make false measure; or as a painter, printer, carver, or graver, should paint, print, carve, or grave, a Coaches head to a Lions body, or if a painter should draw feathers, on beasts, and hair on birds, or the like; indeed a sensitive madness, is like dreams in sleep, onely the sensitive motions work in sleep as I have* described before, on the inside of the sensitive doors; and when awake on the outside; and in sleep be wrought, without a pattern; and awake by a pattern srom the reall figure, which they present; and the differences in madness are, that they work be wrought, without the real subjects, on the outside of the sensitive door, as if awake, although there are no objects to take pattern from, as we may perceive by them that are distempered, that they see such objects that are not present, or such as never was, or can be; and so the like for sounds, tasts, touch, and smelling, that is, the sensitive motions, paints, prints, carves, graves, or the like; as on the outside of the optick nerve, without a reall pattern; and when the sense* works regular, they never draw on the outside without a pattern, but on the inside, as in sleep, and the like for all the other senses: But the motions of the rational madness are, when they move violently, and irregularly, if the motions be onely violent, then they fall into violent passions; as anger, fear, malice, or loving, hating, grieving, dispraises, and resolute intentions; if their motions be irregular, then they have strange conceptions, wild fancies, mixt memories, inconstant and various opinions; if their motions be violent and irregular, they have strong and strange imaginations, high despaires, obstinate and dangerous resolutions; if the sensitive and rational innate matter, sympathie in violent irregularity, then they will violently talke, laugh, sing, weep, and sigh, without reason why, or wherefore; but mistake me not, for when I say, too violent, strong, swift, weak, slow, it is irregular, as to the temper or nature of the figure, but not as to its own nature; as for example, a clock may go too swift as to the distance of the hour, and yet strike even every nick; and the pulse may be too swift for the natural temper, and yet keep even time: a musician may play too fast for a solemn tune, and too slow for a light air, and yet play right to the notes; as for the irregularity, some motions may be too swift, others too slow, for other assistant motions, as for example an army is to march in a body, and some should go, or ride half a day, or a dayes journey before the rest, and some should lag, and come slowly behinde, or that some should go one way, and some another, or as two should carry a burthen, and the hindemost should go too fast for the former, and so tumble or throw down, or as horses in a Coach, the one runs away, and forceth the other to follow, as for disorder, it is somewhat otherwise, as tumults and uproars, as some doing that which they ought not to do, or belong not to them, or instead of garding a house pull it down, or like those that will make a fire in the midst of the house on a woodden floor, and not in the Chimnie; then there is a disorder in placing, and matching of parts, and alterations of motions, quite different, from the nature of the figure, for some sort of madnes is made by such different motions, as death from that which we vulgarly call life, that is, the motions, are as different, as several kindes of figures; for in this kinde of madnesse, they no more know in their fits, or remember out of their fits, what they did, or said, or was done to them in their fits, then if they had been dead; just as in a sound, they know not what was done to restore them, yet there is not a cessation of motions; neither in the sensitive, nor in the rational, but an alteration of motion, ‘tis true, there is for a time a cessation of such sorts of motion, as belong to the natural health of the figure, but not to the life.
*As on the opticks, or as on the drum of the ear, the pia mater, or the skin for touch and taste. **As to see, hear, taste, touch, smell, that which is not present, or perhaps not in nature.
Chap. 180. Of madnesse in the body and minde.
There are two sorts different in madnesse, the one is irregular motion, amongst the rational innated matter, the other amongst the sensitive innated matter, as misplacing, ill mixing, or mismixing, or mistempering, or distempering, false carving, wrong printing off, and on the dull part of matter, as in fevers, or the like diseases, where the distempered matter is misplaced, by which improper motions, alters the natural motions, which makes the natural temper, and causes, and unnatural temper by improper motions; working upon every particular sense, irregularly, or rather improperly, and mixtly, which makes extravagancies both in each particular senses, and in the generality, this madnesse proceeds from the sensitive, and not from the rational innated matter; for the rational part will be in order, and describe distinctly what extravagant the sense presents to them; but this madnesse of the body is oft times mistaken, and thought to be the distemper of the minde, because the sick persons describe those extravagancies by relation, yet oftimes the one causeth the other, but not alwayes; for many times the minde will be disordered when the body is sound, and healthful, and many times the body will be distempered, when the minde is regular and free; but the madnesse of the body, onely continues to the height of the disease, and as the disease abates, the extravagancies vades, and by health vanishes away, or rather is rubbed, or worn out, by the Regular, and proper natural motions belonging to that figure, or body, but the madnesse in the minde proceeds from irregular motions, amongst the rational innated matter, as when they neither keep time, nor measure, not onely in making* figures, but in moving those figures, they make this distemper, or rather that disorder, is altogether in the moving matter, when the other distemper is in disordering the moved matter, for the sensitive innate matter may work regularly, according to the nature and strength, but not according to the temper, or degree of the dull matter, nor according to the nature, and property of the kinde, or sort of figure; but when the sensitive, and the rational joyns in conjugal disorder the minde is ravening as we say, and the body weak.
*Figures of innated matter.
Chap. 181. Madnes is not alwayes about the head. MAdnesse belongs not onely to the head, as that onely the eye, ear, nose, and mouth, sees, hears, smels, and tasts extravagantly; but every other part of the body that is sensible* of touch; for extravagant touch, is as much as extravavant sight, and the like; for touch of the brest, or any other part of the body, is a sense, as much as the eye in the head; thus the body, or senses will be mad as well as the minde, as I have described in former chapters. *In mad fits.
Likewise for the madnesse in the minde, it is not alwayes bound in the head; for where there are extravagant passions in the heart, the minde is as mad, as when there are extravagant imaginations, in the head; for the rational matter, that which we call the soul, or minde is as much, and hath as much recourse to the heart, as to the head, and so to the other parts of the body, for any thing I can perceive.
But that matter I call the rational and sensitive spirits,* which others call the animal, and vital spirits; perchance fools may think me extravagant for giving the matter other names; but I was forced to take these names, because they were more significant to the sense of my discourse; besides, perchance they may think, when I speak of rational and sensitive spirits, that they are hobgoblins, ghosts, or visions, such as nurses fright their children with, or superstitions, or as the wiser sort doth to make credulous fools beleeve to keep them in awe, knowing they are apt to disorders. *If I mistake not.
Chap. 182. Musick may cure mad folks.
There is great reason why Musick should cure madnesse; for this sort of madnesse is no other but the spirits that are in the brain and heart put out of their natural motion, and the spirits having a natural sympathy with Musick, may be composed into their right order; but it must be such Musick, as the number of the notes must goe in such order as the natural motion of the brain, though every brain hath not one and the same motion, but are set like notes to several tunes: wherefore if it were possible, to set notes to the natural motion of the heart, or that brain that is distempered, it might be perfectly cured, but as some notes do compose the brain by a sympathy to the natural motion, so others do make a discord or antipathy, and discompose it, putting the natural motions out of tune.
Thus much for the sensitive Maladies.
Chap. 183. Of the fundamental diseases, first of fevours.
There are many several sorts or manners of fevors; but I will onely treat of the fundamental fevours, which are three, from which three all other fevors are partly derived; the first is a malignant fevor, the second the hective fevor; and the third the ordinary burning fevours; the first is catching, and often deadly, the second is never catching, but alwayes deadly; the third is neither catching, and seldom deadly; the first proceeds from violent disordered motions, and distempered matter, and humour.* *Which is corrupt humors.
The second from swift motions, which distemper and make waste of the matter, which matter, I mean the substance of the body.
The third is too violent motions on well tempered* matter. *As a sound body.
And these three sorts of fevours are often mixt, as it were a part of all mixt into one; but a high malignant fevor, is a sudden usurpation; for the disordered motions joyned with a mistempered matter, which is corrupt humours, surprise the body, and destroy the life therein, as we shall see in great plagues, the body is well, sick, and dead in a moment; these or the like diseases are caused after three manner of wayes, as being taken from outward infection, or bred by an evil habit in the body, or by taking some disagreeing matter therein, which causeth a war of sicknesse; for upon the* disorder which the disagreeing matter makes, the natural motions belonging to the body grow factious, and like a common rout arise in an uproar, which strives onely to do mischief, stopping some passages that should be kept open, and opening some passages that should be kept shut, hindring all regular motions, from working after that natural manner, forcing* those they can over power, to turn rebels to the life of the body. *Surfets, or unholsom meats. **The stronger motions over power the the weaker
For it is against the nature of the innated matter to be idle, wherefore it works rather irregularly then not work at all, but as long as a body lies sick, the power is divided, one part of the innated matter working irregularly, the other according to the natural constitution, which by the regularity, they strive to maintain the chief forts of life which are the vital parts, especially the heart, and disordered motions striving to take, or pull them down, making their strongest assaults thereon; for the disordered innated matter makes out-works of corrupted matter, stopping as many passages as their power will give leave, so striving either to starve the vital parts, or to oppresse them with corruption, or to burn them by their unnatural heat they make in the body, or to drown them with watrish humor which is caused by the distemper of ill disgestions, and obstructions; the regular innated matter, strives to break down those works, and to cast, and expel that filth out of the body,* and according as each party gets the better, the body is better or worse, and according as the siege continues, the body is sick, and according as the victory is lost or won, is life or death. *Some dayes the body is better then others, so in an hour or half an hour.
Chap. 185. Of the infections of animals, Vegetables, and elements.
Such motions as corrupt animal bodies, corrupt vegetable bodies, and as corrupt and malignant air is infectious to animals, so likwise to vegetables, and as malignant diseases are catching and infectious, to those that comes neer them, so oftentimes vegetables are infectious to animals, as herbs and fruits, which cause some yeers such dangerous sicknesse and killing diseases to those that eat thereof; likewise those bodies that are infected do infect sound, and nourishing food, when once it is eaten, causeth that which is good also malignant when once in the body.
Chap. 186. Of burning fevros.
All burning fevours for the most part, are produced from the vital spirits, as when they move irregularly, they corrupt the natural humours which cause a distemper of heat in the body moving towards expulsions, which are dilation; and when they move with supernatural quicknesse after an extenuating maner, they inflame the body in either causes, emptying the body, and quenching the fire is to be put in execution, for the emptier the body is, the lesse humours there will be. Ltkewise lesse motion, as having lesse matter, for in matter motion lives, likewise the lesse cumbustible matter there is, the sooner the unnatural fire will be quenched, unlesse that the fire be in the arteries, then it is like a colepit set on fire, wherein there is no quenching it, unlesse you drown the coles, so when the unnatural heat is in the arteries, you must drown the life of the body, like the colein the pit before you can quench the fire; but a 〈◊〉 may be eased, & somwhat prolonged with cooling brothes, and quenching julips, for though they cannot enter the arteries, yet they may keep the outward parts cold and moist, which may cast cold damps quite through the body, but in this case all evacuations are dangerous, for the more empty the body is of humour, the sooner the body is consumed, for the humours serve as oyl, and though they flame, yet they keep in the light of life; in all other fevours evacuations of all sorts are good, for if it be some melancholy pitch humours that are set on fire in the body, or some oylie cholerick humours, it is but quenching it with cooling julips, without any hurt to the body, and if it be a brandy blood set on fire, it is but drawing it forth by broaching some veines, and the body will be saved from the destruction.
Chap. 187. The remedies of Malignant Diseases.
In malignant diseases expelling medicines are best, which expelling medicines are not hot, and dry medicines, for all* drugs that are naturally dry, have a contracting quality which is an utter enemy in this disease; for they must be dilating medicines, and all dilating medicines have a fluid faculty working after the nature of a flowing tide, which is thrusting, or streaming outward, as to the circumference, and the operations of drying medicines, are like the ebbing tide that draws backward or inward, as to it self; but as I said before, that all hot and dry medicines have a contracting quality, which contractions draw or gather up the malignity, as in a bundle or heap together, and if it be a fiery contraction, it sets it on a fire, which burns out the life of the body; for fire makes no distinguishment of good or bad, but destroyes all it can in compasse, so as it will not onely burn up the superfluities, or corruptions, but suck or drink up the radical moisture, or charcoales, the vital parts, and consumes the animal life. Wherefore dilating medicines, must be applied in these diseases, but not strong expulsives medicine, by reason the malignity is so intermixt, or spread in the, body that striving with a strong force to cast forth the malignity they should cast forth the nourishing and consistent matter, for the malignity, and corrupt humours being more strong, having a greater party, can resist with more strength the force of expulsion then the nourishing, consistant part can being weak, so that the expulsions give strength to the malignity, or corrupt humours, by taking away the pure, and well tempered matter; but leting blood in these diseases 〈◊〉 be excellent good, for bleeding is rather of the nature of sweating, then of purging; besides, it will draw the malignity more from the vital parts into the veins, for the veins having a natural quality or faculty to draw, and to suck into them, will draw, and suck in that which doth most abound, so as it is but still letting blood as the malignity is** drawn in, for it is better to let out the blood, then endanger the vital parts, by keeping it in, for if most of the blood should bee let out there will fresh blood increase in a short time, but if the vital parts be never so little corrupted, or putrified or wasted, we cannot heale or make up those parts again.
*As hot and dry Cordials.
**As to draw every day an ounce, or two as long as the violence of the discase lasts.
Chap. 134. Diseases caused by conceit, or cured.
As for the Producing diseases by conceit, is thus; the vital spirits which are the motions of life, have an absolute power over the body, as working every part thereof, and therein, so the animal spirits which are the motions of the mind create imaginations, and conceptions, and the animal spirits and the vital spirits being as man and wife, the animal as the husband, the vital spirits as the wife, whereupon the animal spirits many times beget that desease it figures which is an imagination, and the vital spirits brings that childe forth, being like the figure the animal spirits made, that is, the vital spirits oft times work such motions as makes such diseases, wherefore the animal spirits work those motions into imaginations; and to prove it, those that conceit they shall have the small pox, measels, pleague, or the like, most commonly they fall sick of that disease, although they come not neer the infection; and to prove the animal spirits which is the minde, works the same motions by an imagination as the disease is, that those which conceit a disease, do not fall sick of any other disease but the same they imagine, and the reason why these malignant diseases are produced oftner by imaginations then other diseases, is, that those diseases are dangerous, or that they are apt to deform which makes a fearful conception or imagination, to work more strongly; for did the imiginations work as strong to other diseases as to these, they would produce the same effects; As for those which are cured by conceit, is when* the motion of the animal spirits works stronger then the vital spirits, which causeth the vital spirits to altar those motions that made such diseases; but those effects are produced but seldom, by reason that the animal spirits seldom work so strong imaginations, for it requires a double, or treble strength to resist or alter the force another way, which must be to cure a disease after this manner, then to joyn and assist, as in the producing a disease; for when the imagination produceth a disease, the vital spirits joyn with the animal, but when the disease is cured by imagination, the animal spirits takes the animals from their work; but a great fright, or a sudden joy is a good remedy in some diseases, by reason those passionate motions are strong, and violent, yet they can cure onely loose diseases, not such diseases as are rooted, or fixt, for then the vital spirits are not to be altered by the animal. *I meane there interior strength.
Chap. 188. Of the expelling malignity to the outward parts of the body.
The reason why malignant diseases, as the plague, or purples, or small pox, measels, or the like; there break forth spots, swelling scabs, or whelks, is by the power of expelling motion; But the reason why it sticks in the flesh, and not quite out, is, because the irregular motions that maintain the health and strength of the body, are opposed by disorderly motions, which makes corrupted matter, that makes disordered motions; for though there can be no corrupted matter, but what is caused from disordered motion, yet when the humors of the body are once corrupted, the motions are more violent; again, superabundant humors, cause disordered motions; for as there is too much humor, obstructing the body therewith, so there is too much motion, to work regularly therein, and being against the natural constitution to have so much humor, and motion, it produceth violent sickness, working to the destruction, and not to the maintenance of the body; but the regular motions, which are digestive motions, which unites, strengthens, and defends the vital parts, by atracting good 〈◊〉, by retaining the useful parts; by concocting it into a sollid substance, by expelling of superfluieties, or malignancy out of the body, after a methodical manner, and according as the strength of expelling motions are, so is the malignity, cast forth, for if the repelling motions be stronger then the expelling motion, the malignant presses so hard upon the vital parts, as it smothers the life therein, or burns up the materials thereof: Again, the expelling motions may be so weak, as they cannot thrust out the malignity so far as the circumference of the body which is the skin, or if so far, yet not to stay there so long, as to evapor it out, and then the malignity fals back with a greater violence; for what is forced, and resisteth, when once it hath liberty, or gets power, it becomes more violent, by how much more it were forced; but that malignity that doth evaporate forth, doth insensibly enter into the next body it meets; entring through the nostrils, mouth, or pores of the flesh; and thus many times, from animal to animal untill there is a general infection, which is a general disorder, for the malignity that enters in by infection, is like a foraign enemy, which enters into a peaceable country, which not onely disorders it, but makes havock and waste, and many times utterly destroyes it, but when a malignant disease is bred in the body, it is like a civil war, where uproars are raised, and outrages are done, by inbred corrupt humors; but when malignant or other diseases are caused by surfeits, it is like a deluge of fire or water, that either drowns, or burns up the the kingdom of the body; where sometimes it is saved by assistant* medicines, and sometimes it is so furious, as nothing can help it. *As by letting bloud, or the like.
Chap. 189. Of Sweating diseases.
All sweating diseases are caused by such kinde of extenuating motions, as melt metal, and not by such kinde of extenuating motions as evaporate water, for the evaporations of the watery part of the body breath forth in insensible transpirations, as breathing through the pores like a thin air; but sweat runs through the pores like liquid oar through gutters of earth: but sweats are good or bad for the body, according to the matter or humors that are melted out, as for example; I will compare the humors of the body to several metals, as Iron, Lead, Tin, Copper, Silver and Gold; Iron is melancholly dust; Lead is cold, and dry or cold, and moist melancholly; Tin is flegm; Copper is choler; Silver is the radical humor; and God is the vital spirits: These humors must be proportionably tempered to make a healthful body; there must not be too much quantity of Lead, Tin, or Copper, for the Silver or Gold, but unless there be some, they will not work; like as coyn, it cannot be wrought, or formed without some allay, and if the allay be too much, it abases the coyn.
Likewise there must be so much heat in the body onely as to compound those humors, not to melt them out by sweats unless they superabound; and then Physicians must onely have a care to melt out that humor that superabounds; for if the radical humor should be melted, or the vital spirits spent, it destroys the body by wasting the life.
But in some cases sweating is very beneficial to the body, as in great colds, which have knit up the pores or passages of the body, or in great surfeits, or in malignant diseases, which help to expel the poysonous humor, or corrupted humors in the body, or melt the Icy humors congeal’d by cold; but those sweats that are beneficial, and wholesome for the body, the body will be much stronger, and agiler, and the spirits quicker, and livelier,; but those sweats that are pernicious to the body, the body will be faint and weak, after they have sweat; but in these diseases, a physician must be very careful, when he puts a patient in a sweat, as to give such medicines as will work upon that humor, he would have sweat forth, but in sweating diseases, as when the body sweats too violently, like as in great and dangerous fluxes, which are not to be staied by ordinary means, for although in these diseases, there must be used contracting medicines, yet some sweats require hot contracting medicines, others cold contracting medicines, and those medicines that are applied, must be applied gently, and by degrees, lest by a sudden contraction they should stop the pores of the body too much, which are the doors to let out the smoak in the body, as well as the sweat of the body, or by too hasty contractions those passages should be shut, that should be kept open, or those to be kept opened that should be shut; but physicians will guess by the patient, what humor they sweat forth; for cold sweats are from melancholy, clammy sweats from thick flegm; hot burning sweat from choler; cold faint sweats proceed from the radical humor; hot faint sweats from the vital spirits.
Chap. 190. Of Surfeits.
Surfeits are superfluities; as too much heat, or too much cold, or when there is taken into the body too great a quantity of meat, or drink, or the like. Likewise when the nature of the meat is disagreeing to the nature of the body; where one scruple will be too much, as being ill, which will give a surfeit, for surfeits do not onely oppress by the superfluous quantities of matter, but disturb by the superfluous motions, the disagreeing matter causing more motion, then naturally belonges to a healthful body: Besides, like a company of rude and unruly strangers disturbs and hinders the irregular motions, altering the natural constitutions, and uniformity of the body; and many times ruines the body, unless an assistant motion in medicinable matter is brought to help, to expel the superfluous, or that the natural expulsive motions in the body, are strong enough, to throw out that ill matter, either by vomit, or stoole, or other evacuation; but many times the superfluities become so strong, not onely by their own ill nature, or great quantity, but by making a faction; And so begetting a party amongst the natural motions, which makes such a general disorder, that though the natural digestive motion, and the natural expulsive motion joyn with the like assistant motions taken in medicines, yet the body shall be ruinated, and life cast out, by that matter, and these motions that are their enemies therein.
Chap. 191. Of Consumptions.
All Consumptions are caused by an unnatural expulsion, caused by mistempered matter, or mistempered matter caused by unnatural motions, such as work not to the subsistance or health of the body; which after they have corrupted the* matter, they turn to expulsions, throwing all out of the body; but if they be onely exterior expulsions, they onely untile the house, that is, they do unflesh the body; but if they be interiour expulsions, they do not onely unflesh the body, but rot some part in the body; and if the unnatural expulsions be amongst the vital parts, which are the foundations of the life of the body, the whole fabrick of the body fals without redemption, and the materials go to the building of other figures. *Yet it is first caused by other distempered motions, before they come to be distempered expulsions.
But if they are hot expulsions, caused from a thin, sharp, salt humor, there must be applied cold contracting medicines; and if they be cold expulsions, there must be apylied hot contracting medicines.
All cold expulsions are, when the parts are tender, weak* and raw, and undigested; and hot expulsions are, when the parts are burnt, or ulcerated; for all hot expulsions work upon the parts of the body, as fire on wood when they are burning expulsions, or else like as fire doth on metal, melting them into a liquid substance; and cold expulsions work upon the parts, as when cloudes beat down into showers of rain, or slakes of snow, breaking or extenuating those clouds into small parts, so that the dropsical humor that ariseth from hot consumptions, are onely liquid like melted metal; and the dropsical humor that ariseth from cold consumptions, is as a watery floud: but as I said, in all consumptions the remedies must be contractive, or at least retentive; because the nature of all consumptions are expulsive, but yet all or the most part of physicians, finding their patients to be lean and dry, give all dilative medicines, as if the parts were onely gathered into a less compass; but the truth is, when so much of the natural bulk of the body is lessened, so much of the body is wasted: I will not say but these unnatural expulsions might proceed from unnatural contractions, like as when any thing is made so dry as it moulders into dust, but when it comes to that degree, it expulses; so whensoever the body is in a consumption, the motions therein are expulsive: I do not mean by siege or vomit, although they will spit much, which is a kinde of vomiting, but they waste by insensible inspirations; but all purging medicines are an enemy to this disease, unless they be very gentle; for though purging medicines do not expulse, after the nature of consumptive expulsions, yet if they be strong, they may in some kinde assist the consumptive expulsions, neither is much leting blood good in these diseases; yet a little refreshes, and tempers the body; for in these diseases physitians must do as Chirurgions when they cure wounds, they first clense the sore or wounds, taking away the putrified matter gently with a probe, and then lay a healing plaister, so Physitians must gently purge and bleed the patient, and then give them strengthening, and nourishing remedies: again many Physitians have a rule, that when they perceive their patient to be exteriorly dry, that is, outwardly dry, they think them hot; but it doth not follow that all drouth proceeds from heat; for there are cold drouths as well as hot,* so that a Physician must warily observe the patients drouth, whether it proceeds from cold or heat, or whether the drouth proceeds for want of a sufficient quantity of matter, for the body to feed upon, or that the matter, which properly should be porous and spungy, is contracted into an unnatural solidity, and though the interior nature of drought is made by contraction, yet the exterior motions may be expulsive; as for example, if any thing is dryed to that degree as to fall into dust, although the interior be contracting, that caused it to be so dry, yet the exterior motions are expulsive, that causeth it to fall into parts; but the drouth of consumptions doth proceed most commonly from a scarcity of nourishing matter that should feed each part of the body, for the principal and consistent parts being distempered, cannot disgest so much as will feed the hungry members therof; but as I have said before, that all consumptions are wrought by expulsive motions, for what is contracted, is not consumed, nor doth consume untill it expulses, but those bodies that are lean or dry by contractions, are not in consumptions, for nothing is wasted, onely the dimensions, and extentions of the body are drawn into a lesser, compasse; Thus, as I have said, Physitians, although they mistake not the diseases, yet they may easily mistake the manner of the diseases, for one and the same kinde of diseases may move after divers manners in several bodies, and in one and the same body.
*There are hot expulsions, and cold expulsions, and hot contractions, and cold contractions.
**As witnesse the frost and ice.
Chap. 192. Of dropsies.
Most dropsies are something of the nature of consumptions, as being in the way to consumptive expulsions, for they dilate after that manner, as the other expulses, especially if they are dropsies, which proceed from corrupt parts, and then they turn to consumptive expulsions, and the onely difference in most dropsies, and consumptions, is, that dropsies as long as that disease lasts, the motions in the body are most dilating, which is in a degree to expulsion, and when it comes to a consumption they are all expulsions, but as the motions differ, so the diseases differ, for there are several sorts of dilations, and several sorts of expulsions, nay some are different in the manner of working, as if they were of other kindes of motions, but some dropsies proceed from hot dilations, others from cold dilations, and some proceed from too many digestive motions, that is, when there are too many or too strong disgestive motions in the body; for the natural temper of the body disgests so fast, as makes more nourishment, then the several parts can feed with temperance, which makes the reignes, and the rest of the sucking parts glutinous, or else those many disgesting motions work too curious, for by reason they cannot be idle, they work the nourishing matter too fine, or too thin, for proper uses; as if flower should be so often bolted, that it could not work into a lump, or batch for bread; or like as any thing should be wrought upon so much, as to become liquid, as into oyl or water. *The like of other kinde of motions.
Other dropsies proceed from the weaknesse of disgestion, those motions being not strong, or sufficient to work all that is brought into the stomach; whereupon that superfluous matter corrupts with distempered motions, and when it comes to be corrupted, it either dilates, or expulses, if it onely dilates, it turns to water, if expulsive, it casts forth, either by vomit or stool, or else lies to corrupt the principal parts in the body, which when they are joyned together, expulses life by their treacherous usurpation.
Other dropsies are caused by too weak contracting motions, causing that to be tender that should be solid, or those parts loose that should be firm, as not contracting hard enough. As first contracting into Chylus, then into blood, then harder, for flesh, and harder for nerves and bones; the contractions growing weaker and weaker, until they become of no strength, and then they turn to dilations or expulsions; but pray mistake me not, for though one and the same innate matter may grow weaker, as to abate of such or such a kinde of motion, so increases stronger and stronger, according to the quantity, as to other motions. But as I said before, that innated matter in such diseased bodies, turns from contracting to dilating, turning by degrees from one to another, and then the dilations work more and more, extending more and more in such circular motions as produce water; for when it comes to such a degree of extention, it is become from being solid to be lesse hard, from being lesse hard, to be soft, from soft to be liquid, from liquid fluid, and when it comes to such a degree of a fluid extention, it turns wet, and when it is soft, liquid, fluid, and wet it is turned to that we call water; for oyl, though it be soft, liquid, and fluid, yet it is not absolute wet, it is rather moist then wet: for there is a difference between moist and wet, or glibby and wet, or glibby and moist, so that oyl is a glibby and moist body, rather then a soaking wet body; but when this watry extenuation extenuates beyond the degree of water, they turn to vapour, which causeth the diseased to be puft or blown like a bladder, rather then swell’d out, as we shall perceive that a little time before the patients fall into a consumption, they will be so puft out, as their flesh wil be like a fire-bal, the next degree they fall into a fiery extenuation; For when the humour extenuates beyond vapor, which is a kinde of an aire, then it becomes hot like fire, which is a hective fevour, and when the humour hath extenuated to the farthest degree, it expulses, and so pulls* down and throws out the life of the diseased; but in the hidropical diseases, there must first be applied attractive medicines to draw out the watry overflows, by issues, cupping-glasses, or the like, then there must be applyed expulsive medicines as purgings, and bleeding, and sweatings, yet they must be gently applyed, for fear of weakning the body by drawing out the humour too suddenly, then there must be applied contracting medicines to draw into an united substance, as to gather or draw up those parts that have been made loose, porous, and spungie with the disease, then there must be applied retentive medicines, to confirm and settle them, after their natural manner, or form, then last there must be applied disgestive medicines to restore what is wasted; but if any of the principal parts be impaired, wasted or expulsed: they neither can be restored nor mended, but by a new creation, which uncreating braines perhaps conceive not; but I must intreat my readers to observe, that some sorts of motions begin a disease, that is, they lay the foundations thereof; and other sorts of motions work upon those foundations. *See in the chap of extenuations of water.
Chap. 193. Of apoplexies.
Some sorts of apoplexies are caused by an inbred superfluous water, in the brain, which being congealed by a cold contraction, falling to the knitting part of the head, which is the hinder part, it stupifies the senses, stopping the natural motions as a flowing river, that is turned into ice; but those sorts of apoplexies are curable, if assistance be taken in time, which is by hot dilating medicines, not onely to stretch out the icy contraction, but to expell that cold watry humour by a rarification, but if the apoplexie be caused by an inbred slime, as flegme, which is of a thicker nature then water, and is become crusted or peterated by hot contractions, it is seldom or never cured, no more then brick which is once baked by the sun, or in a fire, can be made to such clay as it was before it was burnt; But mistake me not, for I do not mean the humour is as hard as stone, or brick in the head, but so hard, as to the nature of the brain, that is, the flegme is grown so dry and tough, as not to be dissolved, so soon as the nature of the brain requires it, for though flegme will be contracted into stone, as in the bladder, and kidnies, yet not in the brain, by reason the nature of the brain is so tender, and so sensible, as it cannot indure so solid a substance therein, nor suffer so long a time as the humour will be penetrating to stop the passages to the brain, not but those kinde of motions that produce stone, may be so strong and so swift as to turn matter into stone immediately; but I do beleeve not in the animal bodies, for they are too weak figures for so strong motions to work in; but as I said these hot or cold contractions, for both sorts of contractions produce stone, so both sorts of contractions make tough, clammy, crusted, hard flegme, which is some degree towards stone, flegme if it stop the passages to the brain, it causeth an apoplexie; but the 〈◊〉 why the watry contractions are more apt for cure, is, because the nature of water is fluid, and is easily dissolved by dilations, having interior nature to extenuations; but slime, and flegme are more solid, and so not so flexible, to be wrought upon, as suddenly to change shape, or nature, in being dissolved or transformed.
The third cause is a fulnesse of blood, or a thicknesse of blood; for when the veins are too full, there is not vacuity enough for the blood to run, so stops the motion thereof, or if the blood is too thick, or clammy, it becoms lesse fluid, and the more solid it is, the slower the motion is, and though the blood may have too quick a motion by reason of heat, so it may have too slow a motion by reason of thicknesse, and if the veines are filled too full of hot blood, wherein are many spirits, it endangers the breaking some of the veines, like as when strong liquor is put into a barrel, if it be filled too ful the strength of the spirits striving for liberty, break the barrel; the like will the blood in the veins, and if a vein chance to break in the head, it overflows the brain and drowns the life therein.
The last is grosse vapor which may ascend from the bowels, or stomack, which causeth so great a smoak, as it suffocates, or choaks the brain, smothering out the life of the body. All apoplexies are somewhat of the nature of dead palsies.
Chap. 194. Of Epilepses, which is called fallingsicknesse.
This disease is caused by a water in the brain, which water is most commonly green, like sea water, and hath an ebbing and flowing motion, like the tides thereof, and when the water is at full tide, on the forepart of the head, it takes the diseased after the manner of panting, and short breathing, beating themselves, and foaming at the mouth, neither can they hear, see, smell, nor speak; the reason is, that the flowing motion driving the watry humour so far out, as it extends the pia mater, and dia mater of the brain, farther then the natural extention; which extention swelling out towards the outward part of the head, hinders all recourse, stopping those passages which should receive the objects, through the exterior senses; and the froth or slimy humor, which is betwixt the skin, where the brain lies; and the skull being pressed out, fals through the throat into the mouth, and there works forth like yeast, which is called foaming; but though the motions of the head are thus altered for a time, so as there is neither sense nor rational knowledg, yet the body may be after the natural course, and not any wayes altered; but the body feeling life opprest in the head, the several parts or members in the body, strive and struggle with what power and strength they have to release it: Like as a loyal people that would defend or release their natural and true born King, from being prisoner to a foraign enemy; but when this water flows to the hinder part of the head, the pia mater, and dia mater, extending out that way, stops all the nerves in the nodel of the head, by which stopping, it stops the exterior motions of the whole body, by reason that place is the knitting place of those moving strings; and when the water is flow’d, as I said, to this part, the diseased lies as in a swoon, as if they were quite dead, having no visible motion, but as soon as the water begins to fall back, they begin to recover out of the fits; but as often as the water in the head is at full tides, either of the fore part of the head, or the hinder part, the diseased fals into a fit, which is sometimes oftner then other, for it keeps no constant course, time, nor measure;* and according as the pia mater and dia mater extends, the fits are stonger or weaker. *Sometimes longer and some times shorter.
Likewise such green water with such motions about the heart, may produce the same disease, for oft times this green water, or green thin humor ascends or runs from several parts of the body, into the cesterns of the head and the heart; and this kinde of water or humor, if it be in the nerves, causeth dangerous convulsions, by reason of the sharpness that shrivels up the nerves; and when it is in the bloud causes the veins to contract, through the same reason, if in the stomach, it causes vomiting, or great fluxes, by subdividing the humors; and the sharpness, prickling or tickling the stomach, provokes a straining, as tickling in the nose doth sneezing; so the stomach, either to strain upwards or downwards.
Chap. 195. Of Shaking Palsies.
Shaking palsies proceed from a supernatural extenuation in the nerves, which by the extenuating becomes more porous and hollow, and becomes like a perpetual earthquake, having a flatuous or windy humor in the bowels thereof, and cannot finde passage out, if it proceeds from a hot extention, there must be applied cold condensing medicines; If by a cold extention there must be applied hot condensing remedies.
Chap. 196. Of Convulsions, and Cramps.
Convulsions proceed from contrary contracting motions, quite from the natural motions of the body, as winding up the sinews, nerves, or veins; but especially those sinews, which joyn, and impair the muscles together, drawing not onely contrary, but contracting several wayes, and after divers manners; for some time the nerves are as if we should tie strings in bowt-knots, others as if we should winde 〈◊〉 Lute strings on pegs; and some are twisted like whip-cord, and many the like wayes, which would be too long to recount, but these contractions proceed either from a winde got into the nerves, or veines, which troubles them as the winde-cholick doth the guts, or a sharp humor that shrivels them together, or as salt watery humor, mixt with winde, which strugling and striving together turns windes, folds, or roles up the nerves, like the waves of the Sea, or a cold icy humor, which draws and gathers in the nerves, as frost will do, all spungie bodies, or some thick clammy humor which stops some passages, which causeth the natural motions to turn irregular, but if the humor be onely in the veins, it is cured by letting bloud, if the bloud be corrupted, sharp or salt, or if the bloud be cold, windy, or watry, hot liquid medicines cure it, or cordial water, or the like; and if it be a cold humor in the nerves, hot oyls, and extraordinary hot medicines cures it, as the spirit of Caster, oyl of Amber, and the like; but if it proceed from a salt, sharp, watery humor, or a thick clammy humor in the nerves, it is seldom or never cured, because it is not easily got out, neither* can medicines so suddenly get into the nerves, as into the veins; for though the cold in the nerves may be easily cured, by melting, and dissolving by the comfortable warmth, or violent heats from the hot cordial medicines, which spread about the body, as a great fire in a chimney, which spreads about and heats all the room, if the fire in the chimney be answerable to the bigness, or largeness of the room it is in, and the lesser the room is, and the bigger the fire is, the hotter it is; wherefore it is to be considered, that those that are at full growth, or are larger of body, if thus, the diseased ought to have a greater proportion, or a larger quantity of those medicines, then a childe, or those that are but little of stature, for though those that are of little stature may be more stronger then those that are of a far bigger bulk, yet in the cause of diffusing or dilating medicines, the circumference of the body must be considered, as well as the strength of the medicines; and if the convulsion be in the stomach, caused by the aforesaid humor; purging medicines or cordials may cure it, unless the stomach is gathered, shrivell’d, or shrunk up by an unnatural contracting heat, like as leather that is put into the fire, which when so, the stomach can no more be cured then leather to be made smooth, which is shrunk up in a purse, by fire; after the like manner as corvulsions or cramps, but cramps most commonly are only contractions of the smal veins, 〈◊〉 tie or twist them up, & many times so hard as they break; for those that have been much troubled with the cramp, wil have all the skin, where the cramp hath taken them all stretch’d with broken veins; I mean the small hair veins, but rubbing the part grieved with a warm cloath, will untie and untwist them again, by dissolving the cold, or dispersing the 〈◊〉, or rarifying the bloud therein, this we 〈◊〉 by experience; wherefore I should think that in convulsion fits, that are 〈◊〉 by the like, that if the diseased should be rubbed with hot cloaths, outwardly applied, as well as hot medicines inwardly taken, it may do the patient much good. But I must remember my Readers, that in Convulsions, the strength of the medicines inwardly taken, must be according to the strength of the fits; for if they be strong fits, weak medicines do no good; for more strength goeth to untie a hard knot, then a loose knot, or to untwist a hard string, then a loose string; besides, it is hard to know after what manner the knot is tied or twisted, and many indeed are so ignorant of medicines, as the manner of the disease, to apply such as shall hap of the right end, as those which are cured by chance, and chance hits so seldom right, as not one of an hundred escapes of these kinde of diseases, if the disease is any wayes violent, for then the motions tie so fast, and so strong, as they break the life of that figure asunder. There be natural contractions, and unnatural contractions; that is, proper or improper to the health of the figure. *For as long as the humor remains, the fits are repeated.
Chap. 197. Of Collicks.
All Collicks are towards the nature of Convulsions, or at at least Cramps.
Some Collicks proceed from raw undigested humors.*
Some from sharp melancolly humors.
Others from cold flegmatick humors
Others from hot cholerick humors.
*A bilious Collick.
Others from putrified humors.
Some Collicks are in the stomach; others are in the bowels, as the guts; some in the sides, and sometimes in the veins; but those Collicks are Cramps; but the cause of all Collicks are by extenuating motions, though the effects are oft times contracting, but if the cause be contracting, it is a Cramp, not a Collick, for a Collick is properly winde, produced from* the aforesaid humors; that is, when those humors extenuate farther then a watry extenuation, which turns into vapor or winde, which vaporous winde, or windy vapor, striving to get vent, being stopped by grosser vapor, or thicker humor, runs about in cross motions, which cause pain; for the extenuating motions thrusting outward and the resisting motions thrusting backward, run cross, or beat on each other, which causeth pain; and as long as the strife lasts, the body hath no ease, until some assistance in medicines be given, or that it can overmaster the resistent motions; but when once it hath liberty, it flies out in expulsive motions, at all vents; but if the extenuating humors are broke, or dissolved in the body, by the well tempered motion therein, or expulsing of its self, it evaporates through the pores of the body in insensible transpirations; but if the extenuating can finde no way to be expulsed, it gathers inward in small, and smaller rings, like a scrue drawing in the guts or stomach, therein stopping the passages thereof, whereby the body can neither receive nourishment, nor send out excrement, with which the body is brought to an utter destruction; but these kinds of windes causing this distember, this distemper is oft times produced from sharp, hot, cholerick humors; which sharpness hath a natural contracting quality which is rather of the nature of a cramp, or a convulsion, then the nature of a collick; howsoever expulsive medicines are good in these cases of diseases. Convulsions are collicks in the nerves, and cramps collicks in the veins; and as the collick in the stomach or guts proceeds sometimes from winde, and sometimes from crude bilious sharp humors, so doth this. *Cramps oft times taken for Collicks.
Chap. 198. Of the diseases in the head, and vapors to the head.
DIseases and swimming, which are diseases, belonging onely to the head, differ as the motions and mixture, and forms of matter differ; for no disease, although of one and the same sort, is just alike; but although these diseases belongs onely to the head, yet the motions and humors of the stomach have greater affinity to the head, and many times cause the diseases therein, by the course and recourse thereto and therefrom; for some humors falling from the head into the stomach, do so disaffect that part, as it returns more malignity up again, and sometimes the stomach begins the war, sending up such an army of ill vapors, as many times they do not onely disorder the head, but totally ruinate it; but most commonly the vapors which ascend to the head, are gathered by contracting motions, into clouds, as vapor is which ariseth from the earth, and as long as the vapor is in a cloudy body, it makes that part feel heavy, and the senses dull by obstructions, for it stops the nose, dims the sight, fills the ears, blunts the taste, and numbs the touch; especially if the obstruction be caused from a cold contraction, which congeals the vapor to an icy substance, but when it is expulsed, by a hot dilation, it falls down like hail or flakes of snow, by which, I mean, cold glassie flegme, which cold flegme doth most commonly as snow doth which covers the face of the earth; so this flegme covers, as it were stops the mouth of the stomack, and deads the appetite thereof; but the danger is in these cold contractions, that 〈◊〉 they should last too long, they may cause numb palsies; or the like, and if contracted, so as one may say christalined it may cause an incurable dead palsie, but if it be disperst by a hot expulsion, it is dissolved in thundring coughs, or falls like pouring shoures of* rain, running through the spouts of the noise, eyes, and mouth, and through the pores of the skin, and sometimes falls into the cabberns or bowels of the body, as the* stomack, and the intrals; but if some of the floud-gats chance to be stopped by obstructions, these shoures may chance to overflow the body, and make an utter destruction, otherwise it onely washes and clenses these parts; but if vapor be gathered by a hot contraction, they become sharp and salt, as being of a burning quality, and if they be disperst by a hot expulsion, they fall down like a misling rain, which hath a soaking and penetrating faculty, cutting and piercing those parts they fall on by insensible degrees, which rots the vital parts, not onely by the sharpnesse which ulcerates, but by a continuated unnatural weaknesse, which if once the parts begin to decay, which is the foundation, the building must needs fall.
Chap. 199. Of catching cold.
One is apter to catch cold standing against a crevis, or door, or window, then in a wide plain.
For narrow passages receive air, as pipes do water, though there comes in lesse quantity, it passes with a greater force.
The like cause makes us catch cold after great heats, by reason the pores of the body are extended there-with, and are like so many windows set open, which receive air with too great a force.
Chap. 200. Of the several motions in an animal body.
When a body is in perfect health, the motions therin do not onely work regularly, and proportionably placing every part of matter rightly, and properly mixing, and tempering the matter as it should be, or as I may say, fittly; that is, when the quantity of matter, or humour is proportionably, and the motion moves equally, for though every kinde or sort of motion may move evenly, and keep just time, yet not equally or harmoniously; as for example, say there were a company of musicians, and every one played skilfuly, justly, tunable, timely, on the same notes; yet may there be too many trebles for the tenor, and bases, or too many tenors for the trebles and bases, and too many bases for the tenors and trebles to make a harmony; So in the body there may be too much of one, or more kinde of motions for other kindes to make a harmony of health, as for proof; too many contracting motions, make the body too dry, and contract diseases; as for example, instead of binding any thing, we should break it by pulling or drawing too hard together, or instead of joyning of parts, we should knock them so close as to rivet, or split them; or instead of gathering such a quantity of matter, or joyning such a number of parts, we should gather twice or thrice the quantity; or numbers of the like examples might be given; for all other kinde of motions, as dilating or expulsive, instead of throwing out the 〈◊〉, or rubbish in a house, we should pull down the house, and disperse the materials therein, digging up the foundation thereof.
Likewise too many dilating, or expulsive motions, may disperse, or divide parts, or unsettle, or unground parts: which disunites weaknes, and dissolves parts or bodies. Wherefore all contracting, attracting, retentive, disgestive, dilating, expulsive motions in a well tempered body, must move like the several Planets, every sort in their proper sphears, keeping their times, motions, tempers, and degrees; but too many or too strong contracting motions, cause the gout, stone, plurisie, hective fevers, numb and dead palsies, dry-liver, brain, and many the like; and too many dilating motions, cause dropsies, winde-colicks, rhumes, shaking palsies, sweats, or fainting sicknes, & milions, the like, and too many, or too strong expulsive motions, cause fluxes, vomiting, bleeding, and the like, and too many, or too strong digestive motions, cause too much blood, fat, and flesh, which is apt to choak the vital parts, or may nourish some particular parts, so much as may make them grow, and swell out so bigg, as they may be disproportionable, for the rest of the parts in the body.
But still I must remember my readers; that all dilating motions, are in the way of expulsion; and all attractions in the way of contraction, and digestion, are mixt motions taking part from either side, then I must remember my readers, that there are infinite wayes or manners of contractions, and infinite wayes, or manners of wayes of attraction, and so of retentions, dilations, expulsions, and disgestions, where every change makes a several effect.
Chap. 201. Of the several tempers of the body.
A Healthful temper of the body, is an equal temper of the body, and mixture of humors, well set parts, and justly tuned motions, whereby life dances the true measure of health, making several figures, and changes with the feet of times; and a sick distempered body is, when the humours of body are superabundant, or unequally tempered, and the motion perturbed; and irregular, keeping neither time nor measure, but all diseases proceed from too much cold, or too much heat, or too much drought, or too much moisture, or too much humor, or too much motion, or mistempered humor, or unequal motion, or too swift motion, or too slow motion; all contracting motions make the body dry, al dilating motions make the bodie moist, some sorts of contracting motions make the body hot and dry, other sorts of contracting motions make the bodie cold and dry; some sorts of dilating motions make the body hot and moist; other sorts of dilating motions make the body cold and moist; all slow or quick motions cause the humours of the body to be heavy, thick, and clammy, all swift motions cause the humors of the body to be thin, sharp, and salt, all crosse-justling, or beating motions, causeth pain; and according to such and such irregularities, are such, or such sorts, or, kinde, or sorts, or degrees of diseases, are produced there-from.
Chap. 202. The nature of purging medicines.
Most purging drugs are of the nature of hot burning fire; for the inherent motions therein work according to the humour, or matter it meets with, some humor they melt, making it thin and fluid, although it be hard, tough or clammy, and as fire doth oare which is unmelted metal, makes it so fluid, as it will run through a gutter of earth like water; so do some drugs make some sorts of humour through the body, either upward or downward.
Again, some drugs will work upon some humours, as fire upon wood, dividing the humour into small parts, as ashes from wood, which naturally falls downward.
And some they will dissolve by mouldring, and crumbling, as fire doth stone, which runs forth like sand, which is stone indeed bred in the body.
Some drugs rarifie the humors into wind, as fire will rarifie, and evaporate water, which is set boyling theron.
Other drugs will at fire that distils out the moist, and watry substance, from that which is more grosse; but it is to be observed, that all purging drugs that work by vomit, are somewhat of the nature of that kinde of fire we call sulphur; or oyl that is melted, or fluid sulphur, when these sorts of drugs are set on fire, as I may say, by the natural or distempered heat in the body, it flies out ascendingly, like AEtna; for it is of the nature of sulphur to ascend* as flame doth; and certainly al bodies have such motions naturally inherent in them, as make and produce such effects as fire doth on several sorts of humours, by which motions the body hath a natural cleansing faculty, which makes the natural purging quality: but when the motions are so violent, they oftentimes destroy the body with burning fevers, or violent fluxes, or the like; for the fire in the body, is like a fire in a chimnie, for when the chimny is clean, and the fire proportionable to lie therein, it warms and comforts all about, and is useful for many imployments for the necessaries of life; but if the chimny be foul, or the fire too big, or too much for the chimny, it sets all in a flame, consuming whatsoever it incompasses, if it be not quenched out with cooling julips, as with water, or by casting on rubbish, or grosse materials to smother it out, as in great fluxes, they will not onely give restringent medicines, as having a natural restringent faculty, but thick meats, as thicked milk, or the like; but when the body is restringent, or hath taken restringent medicines, it is produced by drying motions, as contracting, or retentive motion, if they be hot, retentive, or contracting motions, they they harden and confirm the humours, as the heat of the sun, or the heat of the fire doth clay, which turns it to brick or tile, or those things we call earthen pots, and according as the humour is grosse or fine, the more britle or hard, or thick or heavie, or thinne or light; It is for some humor as Proselnye, or Chyney, others as the grosser earthen vessels; Again, some sorts of contracting, or retentive motions draw the humour, as when bacon, neats tongues, or the like, are dryed in a chimney, or oven, or the like; other sorts of hot contractions draw the humour, as the sun doth the earth, drying up the watry spring therein; but if the restringencies either of the body, or of the medicines be caused by cold retentive or contracting motions, it dries the humors, as cold frost dries the earth, or bindes up the humors, as frost binds up the waters in icy fetters, or thickens the humors, as cold thickens the water, or vapor drawn from the earth into clouds of snow. But I am to advertise my readers, that all expulsive motions are not fiery expulsions; for there are infinite several wayes of expulsive motions, and dilations. *I have treated of the several sorts of fire.
Secondly these fiery motions do not alwayes work expulsively, but contractively, attractively, and retentively, and disgestively.
Thirdly, all expulsive, dilative, disgestive, contractive, attractive, retentive motions are not fiery, but there is such a kinde, or sort of contractions, attractions, retentions disgestions, dilations, and expulsions, as belong to fire or heat, or as I may better say, produces heat or fire, and as I said there are infinite several wayes of each kinde of motion; as for example, I will treat of one of them: a bee gather wax, a bird gather straws, and a man gathers sticks; the bees gather and carie the wax to the hive to make a comb, to lay, or hold and keep the honey; the bird gathers and carries the straw to build a nest to hatch her young ones in; the man gathers wood to mend his house, these all gather to one end, but yet several wayes; for the bees gather the wax, and carie it on their thighs, the bird gathers the straw, and carries it with their bill, the man gathers with his hands, but carries it several wayes, as on his head, or on his shoulders, or at his back, or in his armes, and milions of the like examples may be given upon each kinde or sort of motion, or moved matter.
Again, I must advertise my readers, that though I say there are fiery motions in drugs, and natural fiery motions in every animal creature, and so in many other figures; yet I mean not a bright shining fire, although some are of opinion, that in the heart is a thin flame, and when that is put out, or goeth out, the creature dies; but I mean not such a fire, for to my apprehension there are three sorts of fire to our perceivance, although there may be numberlesse sorts, yet all of one kinde: as for example, there are those creatures we call animals, though some are beasts, birds, fish, and men, but not onely so, for some are of one sort, and some of another; for a lennit is not a parot, nor a parot an owl; nor a horse a cow, nor a sheep a dog, nor a whale a herring, nor a herring a plaise, nor a plaise a lobster; nor a black-more is not a tauny-more, nor a Europian an Ethiopian, yet all are of animal kinde; so although there may be several sorts of fire, and so of the other elements, yet all are of the fiery kinde, or likewise the fiery motions make several figures, and several figures have several fiery motions, for every sort of animals have a several shape, and several motions belonging to that shape; so in fiery figures, and fiery motions; but as I said before; there are three sorts of fire. The first is a bright-shining hot-burning fire, that is, when the interior, and exterior temperament of matter, and the interior and exterior figure, and the interior and exterior motions be all as one. The second is a hot-burning fire, but not a bright shining fire, such as Aqua-fortis, vitrals, and such sorts of the same nature which will burn as fire doth, but not thin as the other fire doth; for though they are both of an interior nature, yet not of an exterior, for the bright-shining fire is all composed of sharp points, as I may say, lines of points, but this vitral fire is as sharp edged lines, like a rasor, or knife, or the like, neither* is there external motions alike; for bright-shining fire mounts upwards, when it is not supprest, or in a straight paralel line, for flame which is the liquid part of bright-shining fire, although it moves in several lines, as it ascends, yet the lines they ascend in are a straight diameter line, but this vitral fire descends as it were downward, or divides as streames of water do, that digs it self a passage through the earth, so this vitral cuts a passage, through what it works on, neither can this sort of fire work so variously, as bright-shining fire can, by reason it hath not so many parts, for points will fall into more parts, and are more swift in motion, then the edged line; as for example, dust which is numerous little parts heapt together, will be more agile upon the least motion, although it be of a weighty nature, as of the nature of a stone. *That is when it works, and converts a thinner substance to its own nature.
The smal haires which be of a light, and weightlesse nature, but being not divided into so many parts, cannot move so nimble, as being united lines, but if you cut the hair into smal parts, it shall move with more restlesse motion, then the sand, by so much the more as the substance is lighter.
The third sort of fire is that which I call a cold dull fire, such as brimstone, or sulphur, mercury, salt, oyl, or the like, this sort in the interior nature is of the nature of bright-shining fire, both in the motions, and temperaments of matter, but not in the exterior, for it is composed of points, but those points* are turned inward, as toward the Center: but assoon as it touches the bright-shining fire, it straight turns the points outward: for those points soon catch hold of those straight circumferent lines, and break them in sunder, which as soon as they are broke, the points are at liberty, and taking their freedom, they mount in a flame; but when those lines are not dissolved by fire, but crack, as we will snap* a string asunder, then they onely sparkle fire out, but not flame out; but mercury, or quick-silver, the interior is fire, but the exterior is water, for the exterior moves extenuating circles as water doth, and so much as to make it soft, and fluid, but not so much as to make it wet; for though it alwayes gathers into sphiratical figures, which shews that the exterior would run into wet, but that the interior hinder it, by drawing the circles inward, as cold doth water into hail-stones, but yet the interior wants the force to make it so hard and firm; but as I did advertise my Readers before, that all sorts of fire work according to the matter it meets with, yet none work so variously, as the bright-shining fire; which makes me think that drugs are more of the nature of bright-shining fire, then of the two other sorts, because they work in the body according to the humour it meets with, for if it meets wit watrish humors, it boyls it as water in a pot, which either boiles over the mouth of the stomack, or evaporates out in sweat, like dewes, or draws downward, like as in showers ofrain, it melts humors like metal, or turns humors like wood into ashes, or calcines the humor, where some part is fixed, other parts are volable; As for example, Rubarb hath a double faculty, some humors it expels out, others it bindes up; for Rubarb is both purging, and restringent, as it is to be observed in great fluxes; for what it doth not cast forth it confirms to a more solid substance, so as it doth expulse and contract at one time, as I may say, according as it findes the humour it works with; Again, some drugs move several expulsive wayes, as by vomit and stool, where the vomiting is produced with ascending expulsions, siege with descending expulsions, but that expulses descending are of the nature of vitral fire, all that expulses ascendingly, is of the nature of sulphurous fire; but the generality of drugs works like bright-shining fire, according to the nature of the matter, it meets with, as I have sormerly described.
*But bound about with straight smooth lines without as to the circumference.
**As a flint, hard suger, brimstone, or the like.
Chap. 103. The motion of Medicines.
As I have said in my former chapter, that all medicinal drugs, or simples, especially those that purge, are of the nature of fire; for the motions therein most commonly work apart according to the humor it meets with, as fire doth, which in general is to move so and so;* yet the natural motions in drugs, and likewise in fire are expulsive, and all that is expulsive, is by antipathetical nature striving to destroy by uniting parts, and all contractive motions are by a sympathetical nature, striving to unite, by imbracing, or drawing parts together, yet the nature of the body they work in the contracting motions, may be antipathetical, and expulsive motions may be sympathetical, the one in expelling the superfluous and corrupted humors, the other in contracting them into a disease, but most diseases are cured by contrary motions; for if they be diseases of expulsions, they must be cured by contracting, or retentive medicines; if they be diseases of contractions, they must be cured by expulsive medicines, or else dilating or attracting; for though the motions of attraction be agreeable, or of the nature of contraction, as to its self, as I may say, that is, to draw or carry, all to a center, as it were, but the onely difference is, that attraction make it self the center, drawing all things to it; but contractions make the matter they work on, part of the center with them, but all attractions are insinuating motions, inviting, or drawing all towards it self, or like a man that should draw a dish of meat, or as if one should suck the brests or udder, but contracting motions are rather to binde, or knit up parts together, but if the diseases proceed from disuniting motions, then retentive medicines must be applied, which is to firm, hold, or settle parts that are loose, unsteddy; but if the diseases proceed out of disorder and irregularity, they must be cured by digestive medicines, which is to put every part in order, and in its proper place; like wise States-men that are neither partial or malicious, (but Readers know) that though I say all diseases must be cured by contrary motions, yet the motions that are in such medicines, must sympathize, and agree with the constitution of the body. Lastly, it is to be observed, that every degree in the disease must be followed with the same degree in the medicine, whether swift or slow, strong or weak, or more, or lesse, that is, you match your medicines to the disease; but mistake me not, I mean not after the literal sense, but after the metaphorical sense; but al purging medicines are dilative or expulsive, all restringent medicines, are* contractive, and retentive. *That which is most apt to **I mean purning motions.
All drawing medicines are attractive.* *Attractive motion.
All restorative, or reviving medicines are disgestive.* *Restraining motions.
And those contracting medicines that must cure the body, must sympathize with the natural health, and constitution* of the body, not with the disease, for these motions, draw, gather, or at least knit, and bind up the sound parts from the corrupted parts, lest they should intermix, and retentive remedies do not onely stay those parts that are apt to disunite, but give strength, and hold out the assaulting motions in mistempered matter, and all attractive medicines that sympathize with the natural constitutions of the body, sucks and draws forth from the corrupt matter the pure, which is mixed, or inuolved therein; but those attractive, and drawing medicines that are applied to outward sores, or the like, must have a sympathy with the malady, or putrifaction, for all aversions do cast outward; or from them, not draw to them. *Restoring motion.
As for the expulsive remedies they must be carefully applied, lest they should cast forth the wrong humor, by which the* malignant grows more powerful, or else should carry out more humor, then the strength of the body, will permit, or should be so weak, or of such a nature, onely to disturb, and unsettle, but not carry forth, from which disturbance great inconveniences, or deadly quarels in the body may arise; wherefore these medicines are more dangerous then any other sort, although no medicine can be safely applied, unlesse the strength and nature be answerable to the constitution of the body, or the diseases in the body, no not those we call restorative, or reviving remedies, which work disgestively, such as cordials, or the like, for when there is more applied then will agree with the constitution of the body, or with the temper, or degree of the diseases, they turn from being assisting friends, to assaulting enemies, for when they have more force then regular work, they put in disorder those regularities, for want of regular imployment; for it is against the nature of innate matter to desist from moving, or working, but it is not against nature to change and alter the motions. *The humor that staies behiude.
The several degrees, and natures of drugs of every particular drug, and simple; I leave my readers to the Herbal, where perchance some of it may be discoursed of right; or effectually, howsoever it is too laborious a study or practise for me.
Chap. 204. Agreeing, and disagreeing of humours, senses, and passions.
Some times the humours of the body, and the outward senses agree and disagree; sometimes the humours of the body, and the passions of the minde, agree, or disagree; sometimes the passions of the minde, and the outward senses agree, or disagree, and sometimes the senses, and the passions disagree, or agree with the humors of the body. As for example, sometimes the distempered humors in the body, make extravagancy in the senses, as we see in fevers; and sometimes the distempered humors of the body make a disordered minde, as we see those that have cholerick humors, cholerick passions; melancholy humours, melancholy passions, and the like, or distempered humors, extravagant imaginations, and the like.
Sometimes extravagant senses make extravagant fancies, sometimes a superabundant humor makes a strong particular appetite; as for example, those in the green sicknesse, the overflowing, or increase of some raw, and indigested humor will cause a strong particular appetite, as some in that disease love to smell strong smells, as camfier, tanned-leather, musty bottles, or the like, or to delight onely in one taste, as oatemeal, coals, or several particular tasts, or extravagant tasts, not natural to the constitution of the body, as to delight to eat coals, leather, candles, cork, and milions of the like; and the humour increaseth, and is nourished by the sympathy of that extravagant diet; for what the senses take pleasure in, the minde longs for. Again, some humors Antipathize, as to hate all loathsome tasts, smells, noices, touches, and objects.
So passions sympathize with some humors, and disagree with others, for some bitter humors make cholerick passions, sharp humors make spiteful passions, tough humors make a dull understanding, melancholy humors, make timerosity, cholerick humors make courage, and many the like; then the senses of the minde agree, and disagree often, as some objects will astonish the senses, and ravish the minde, delight the sense, and cause love in the minde; others which the sense dislike, causeth hate in the minde, pain in the sense, grieving in the minde, pleasure in the sense, delight in the minde; but if the sense and minde disagree, then the sense likes that the minde hates; As for example, the sense is taking pleasure upon an object, which for the crosse disposition, the minde hates, or for some injury done, or by some neglect, or out of envie, and as they sympathize, and antipathize in their working, and making; so in the expulsions, time works out a passion, accidents work out passion, evacuations work out passion; the like in the senses, so many times humors are expulsed by passions, and as the superfluities are purged out of the body, after the same manner, are violent passions from the minde; for as the body purges by siege, by vomit, by urin, by spitting, by sweating, by bleeding, by incisions, and the like; so strong passions are purged by weeping, by sighing, groaning, speaking, and acting; but if the increasing motions of the humors in the body, and the passions in the minde, be as many, and as strong, as the expulsive motions, then there is a continuance of the same humour or passion, for whatsoever is cast forth, or wasted, is bred again.
Chap. 205. Of outward objects disagreeing with the natural motions, and humours in the body.
Inward commotions of the body are often times caused by outward objects, or subjects, as when the senses take adelight at some kinde of sound, scent, sight, taste, and touch; as for example, some will sownd at a fearful noise, that is, at a sudden, or unacustomed, or tumultuous noise; others will sownd at the sight of bloud, or at any cruel object, or at the sight of a cat, or many other creatures; some will sownd at sweet-smels; others if they should taste cheese, or any meat they dissike naturally, and some will not onely sownd but die laughing with tickling, the reason is, that the exterior motion anticipates with the natural motions belonging to the body, sometimes onely to the sensitive parts, other-some to the rational part, others to both.
The reason is, that the disordered motions of the outward senses, disorder the interior motions, which makes the body sick, and the body passionate, and sometimes the brain frantick, and if they make not the body sick, nor the brain mad; yet those antipathetical, and these disordered motions, never fail to put the sense to pain, or move passion; but when these antipathetical motions be toostrong for the natural motions belonging to the body, or minde, it brings death, or unrecoverable madnes, for then the natural motions belonging to that body, is as it were extinguished; thus we may see that the outward senses may be perfect, and the inward parts within that body may be corrupt and decayed; so likewise the outward senses may be defected, and the inward parts sound, and so some parts of the body firme, and others infirme, and some of the outward parts, or sense wanting, or defective, others free clear and distinguishing.
The reason is, that some of the sensitive innated matter works orderly, others disorderly, and clear from the nature of the body; for as I have said before, some of the exterior parts of the body, may be nummed, or dead; the reason is that the natural motions, belonging to such a part of the body are altered, for every part or parcel, hath proper motions belonging thereunto.
But if in any part of the body, the natural motions onely work irregularly, then it onely causeth a pain in that part; but if the motions work crosse to the nature of the body, it causeth that part to die, but if they alter but in part, it causeth onely a numnesse which is in a degree of being dead, but if the natural motions be onely stopt by some outward accident, or actions, as by a sudden fright, which causeth the body to swoon by reason the spirits are contracted by the fright into so straight a compasse, and thronged so close together, that they cannot move in order, or by the action of lying, or pressing too hard, or too heavy upon any part that hinders the spirits therein from moving after their natural manner, which causeth a sleepinesse or numnesse in those parts, that are prest by weight, or strength; those disorders are soon to be rectified. Again, as by giving liberty, or helping the spirits with cordials which gives strength to them, and sets them at liberty; but if the sensitive parts be quite altered from their natural course, they seldom are rectified; But sometimes the assistance of the regular motions in the body, joyning as it were with one consent, do expel that innated matter out of that part wherein they work, contrary to the nature of the body, and supplies that part with fresh, and new matter, that moves as it should do.
Likewise as the sensitive innated matter works in some parts of the body irregularly, and in other parts regularly, and in one, and the same part, sometimes regularly, and sometimes irregularly, the same is it many times with the rational innate matter; for sometimes that will moves regularly, and sometimes iregularly, that makes frantick men, sometimes to be in their wits, and sometimes out of their wits: but if their madnesse be at certain times, as at full of the moon, or high tides, or springs, or falls, or in the midst of summer, or when they keep an evil, or too full a diet, then it proceeds from those outward accidents, which give assistance to the disordered motions, which inhabit in the body, the original defect being amongst the sensitive innate matter, for this shewes that the madness proceeds from some distemper of the body, which most commonly is in the spleen, or that which they call in women, the mother, from which parts arise grosse, and noisom vapors, which ascends up into the head, and disaffects the brain; and many times the brain is disaffected with its own distempers, and whensoever the brain is distempered, the rational innate matter which moves therein, moves irregularly; but when those times or seasons are past, or that overfulnesse of humour is purged out, the natural motions of humour get strength, and the man is well untill the return thereof.
But if the irregularity be in the rational innate matter, it is most dangerous, for it seldom, or never is cured, nor seldom have intermitting fits, but as a continual fever, in the body, so is a continual madnesse in the minde.
But I shall speak more of this in my following chapters.
Chap. 206. Of the inward sense, and outward sense, as the interior and exterior parts.
Some of the exterior senses may be extinguished, as sight, hearing, scent, or taste, or some parts of the body numb, or dead, or some disjoynted from the rest; as leggs, or arms, toes, brest, eyes, nose, or the like, and yet the material parts sound and whole, which materal parts are the vital parts, as the brain, the heart, the liver, the lungs, the lights, the spleen, the maw, the midriff, the kidnies, the bladder, or the like; as for the heart, and the brain, there is such a sympathising, and conjunction with the whole body, as the least distemper indangers the body, and the least alteration of their shapes, or figures, it destroyes the life of the body, but for the rest of those vitals, or fundamental parts, when they decay, or are any way impaired, the life doth sink down as in were by degrees, according as those parts impaires; but if they be wounded, or corrupted by poisons, or plaguie infections, or by an absolute, and sudden alteration, from their natural motions or figures, then the life is suddenly extinguished, but the external figures of the rest of the parts have not such a sympathy to the interior motions of the whole figure; but when I say the exterior figure of the interior parts, I mean the particular figure of every particular part, not onely the outward part, as hands and armes, leggs, and head, and body and the like; but of brain, and heart, and liver, and so all the rest; for though they be internal figures, to the external figures, yet they be the external figures to the internal motion that works in them.
Chap. 207. The sympathies and antipathies of sound to the minde and actions.
The bottome hole in the eare is covered with a thin caule, or felme, which is called the drum of the ear, where those motions that enter in at the ear beat thereon, like unto drumsticks, and if the felm, or thin skin, be stretched smooth, or braced straight with the nervous strings, the sound is clear and loud, but if it be weakly braced, and the nervous strings loose, and the thin skin slack, the sound is low and dull, by reason that skin is so soft by the slackness, that the beating, or striking, or playing motion thereon cannot rebound, or retort, but sinks, and is smothered therein; and if it be stretched very hard, and thin, and then such motions enter the ear, which pierce, or cut sharp, such as we call shrill notes, it doth not onely desturb the natural motion in the brain, but many times breaks that skin, or at least puts it to pain; likewise if those motions that enter in at the ear, move crosse to the natural motions in the brain, it causeth pain in the head; likewise if one and the same notes are often repeated, it fills the head so full of this particular motion, as they over-power the natural motions therein; and as I may* say, cause a surfeit thereof in the brain, being glutted therewith, tiring not onely the sensitive part os the brain, which causeth pain or diseases, but oppresseth the rational part of innate matter in the brain, causing a hate thereto; and if the vocal, or verbal sound are crossed, as by the way of antipathy, it may disorder both the sensitive, and rational innated matter in the brain, so much by striking or pressing into, and by barring and thronging out, as the sense, and reason are so disordered, as the natural government is absolutely overthrown, from whence proceeds madness, at least extravagant passions raised from the heart; the like disorder both in the head, and heart, may proceed from each of the senses; and as this or the like external objects, or subjects may disorder by the irregular, and antipathetical motions the health and understanding, which are the interiour motions, so regularity and sympathie of the verbal or vocal motions brought through the ear, may compose the differences, and disorder of the natural interior motions, as health, reason, understanding, affection, or reconcilement; as for example, a timely, kinde, discreet discourse, may compose a disquiet mind, for the motions of wise, sober, kinde, gentle, or eloquent words may turn the motion of troubled & combustible, or extravagant thoughts into a smooth, and calm temper, or regular order; Likewise unkinde, and indiscreet, double, false, malicious, hasty, sudden, sad, or frightful discourses, may discompose, and disorder a quiet and well tempered minde, disordering the regular motions, by misplacing the thoughts, making a war in the minde, giving strength to some thoughts, and overpowring others. *We may hear a tune so often repeated; that it may grow hateful; although delightful at first.
The like with vocal sounds; as for musick, the notes in musick agree with the motions of passions, and the motions of several thoughts, as some notes sympathize with passions, and with the several thoughts, and move the actions accordingly, so others discompose the minde, and inveterat and disturb it; for slow, sought strains on the tenor, and bass, is as commending, extorting, exciting, threatning, terrifying, judging, which moves the minde to melancholy, from whence proceeds fear, superstition, devotion, repenting, praying, and vowing, which causeth an humble submission, dejected countenance, weeping eys, heaved up hands, and bended knees.
And slow soft notes, onely on the tenors, are a sad relation, sorrowful laments, mournful complaints, pleadings, petitioning, acknowledging faults, begging pardon, imploring mercy, which moves the minde to a tender pitty and compassion, and a charitable love, from whence proceeds a listning ear, a helping hand, a serious countenance, a sad eye, with a favouring cast therefrom.
High, hard, sharp, notes or straines, on the basse or tenor, is like exclaiming, incouraging, or animating, extolling, promising; which moves the minde to pride, ambition, vain-glory, desire, hope, which makes the body active, the actions adventrous, bold, the eyes darting and quick.
Low, sharp straines, and cross notes, and unequal times, move the minde to murmur words, choler, hate, revenge, fury, despair, the cursing, their hands tearing, the legs stamping, their bodies turning several wayes, their countenance maskerd and gastly, and the eyes staring.
But quick sharp straines in tenor notes, and soft slow strains on treble notes, are as perswading, flattering, insinuating, professing, inviting, alluring, this moves the minde to love, the thoughts to be amorous; this makes their actions affective, kissing their hands, making of leggs, mending their garments, offering their service, their words complemental, their countenance smiling, and their eyes glancing.
And quick sharp strains, on the tenor, and treble notes, produce a cheerful minde, it makes the thoughts lively, the countenance pleasant, their eyes quick, their discourse wanton, and jesting, their actions laughing, singing, playing, and dancing.
But slow low flats strike on the basses, and tenor notes moves the minde to a dull stupidity, wherein the thoughts lie as dead, this makes the body appear like sensless statues of stone, without motion, the head bending down, the eyes fixt to the ground. But Cramatick musick is like Schools disputation, and discord in musick, is like quarrelling, these are the grounds of musical discourses, or discourses in musick.
Musick hath a sympathie to the rational motions, because the rational spirits move in number and measure, as musical instruments do.
Thus as notes are set, the thoughts are placed, and as the notes change in several tunes, so the thoughts move in several passions, and as notes are composed, so are thoughts, as sembrim of thoughts, a full note is a fixt thought.
Thus according as the notes and thoughts agree, the minde, and musick makes a harmony, if I have not matched my strains and notes, with words and thoughts properly, let those that understand musick, and Rhetorick mend it, for I understand neither, having neither fed at the full table, nor drank at the full head of learning, but lived alwayes upon scattered crums, which I pick up here and there, and like a poor lasie begger, that had rather feed on scraps then work, or be industrious to get wealth, so I had rather write by guesse, then take the pains to learn every nice distinction.
And if my book will not please the learned, yet it may please the vulgar, whose capacity can onely dig in the earth, being not able to reach the celestial Orbs by speculation.
Chap. 208. The knowledge of diseases.
It is not sufficient for Physitians to study the names of diseases, and to know onely so much, as to distinguish one kinde of disease from another, as we should distinguish man from beast, or so, as a horse from a cow, or as that horse is a barbe, or a coarser, or a genet, or a Turk, or an Arabian, but that this barbe, is not that barbe, or this genet is not that genet, and the like. Likewise to know the nature so, as to know how to use it, and what fit to apply to it; as for example, a man buyes a horse, and he having onely an old saddle, that he was accustomed to ride with on a horse he formerly had, put it on his new horses back, yet although his horse is of the same Country, or sort of horses, as his former horse was, yet the saddle may not be fit for the new horse, but may be either too big or too little, and by the unfitnesse may gall his horse so sore, and corrupt the flesh so much, as he may be a scald back jade, as long as he lives, if it festers not as to kill him; so in diseases medicines may be too strong, or too weak, or they may evacuate too much or too little, if they do not not know the just dimension, and extention of the disease. Again, one the same sort of horses may be so dull, as hardly to move out of his pace with the spur, although it should prick so deep, as to make his sides to bleed, when another horse of the same sort, shall run away, over hedg, and ditch, against trees, and stones, untill he hurt himself, and flings his rider, or at least flings, and leaps, and snorts, and stamps; and grows into a furious heat; so diseases, some must be handled gently, others more roughly, for in diseases you must learn the disposition of the disease, as well of what kinde, sort, or breed it is; so likewise it is not enough for a physitian to know what drugs will purge choler, what flegme, and what melancholy, or the like; but they should study to know the several motions, which work in them, or else their operations will be as their imploiments are, which is chance-medly; for otherwise a Physitian neither applies his medicines knowingly, nor skilfully, but customarily, because they are usually given in such diseases, whereof some do mend, others do die with them; but certain if Physitians would take pains to study the several motions of the diseases, and also of the drugs, and medicines they give, and would do as skilful musitians, which make a consort, where although every one plaies upon a several instrument, yet they all make their notes agree, there would follow a harmony of health in the body, as well as a harmony of musick in these consorts.
But as I said before it is not sufficient to know how to purg choler, flegme, melancholy, and the like, for the purging of those humors doth not alwayes work cures; for some diseases do not alwayes proceed so much from the loose humours in the body, as the disordered motions in the body; for choler, flegme, melancholy, are not superfluous humors of the body; unlesse the quantity of each be too much; for the nature of the body, for those humours are part of the body, and the body could not subsist without them, for they are several mixtures, which serve to the consistance of the figure, and as some humours, make and mix such humours, so other motions carry the humour like tempered matter, or lime to the creations or reparations of the figure, which is the body; and if there were none of those humours, the figure would no more stand, if once a decaying, no more then a house which runs to ruine for want of stone, brick, wood, or morter, or the like: besides, if there were not flegme, choler, would do like a coach wheel, for want of moisture, the motions would set the body on fire, and if no choler, the flegme would drown it, and if neither flegme nor choler, muddy melancholy would dam, or stop it up.
But Physitians should study diseases so, as they may be able to distinguish them, as we do the different faces of mankinde, or any other; For there are as many several kindes of diseases, as there are animals, and as much difference in one, and the same kinde, as there are in the several shapes, and countenances to the body and nature, and disposition of the minde; besides, diseases are like parents, and children, as the childe may resemble the parent, or the children of the same parents may resemble one another, and yet they are not all one; Again, diseases may be like half brothers, or sisters, as some may have all one mother, but not one father; so some diseases may be produced, partly from such a cause, and partly from another. Again, diseases may be matcht, and some to be like widows, and widows that marry again, so diseases may be loose, or be quit of such a producing cause, and joyn with another.
As for example, a cold stomack is a disease, and a hot liver is a disease, and both may produce such diseases; perchance the cold stomack, may be cured, but not the hot liver, when the cold stomack is cured, the hot liver is a widow, which afterwards may chance to match with a cold melancholy spleen, or two or thre, or more diseases, may be matched together; as if a man should have two or three wives, or a woman as many husbands; likewise several accidents may be matched, or at least commit adultery, and get bastardly children.
As for example, a great heat may be matched or joyned with a sudden cold, which may produce a great fever or other diseases that usually follow, and milions of the like examples may bee given. But I desire my Readers, that they may not condemn my comparisons, as extravagant, and too fantastical for so grave a subject, but I could finde no fitter to expresse my meaning, which is onely that I would have Physitians, as skilful, knowing and learned in diseases, as they are in the customs, manners, humours, and persons of men, and that they may as knowingly distiugnish the difference, alterations, degrees, and alliances of diseases, as they do the several sexes, faces, countenance, dispositions and qualities of men.
Besides, who knowes but that the very thoughts of men may be known by the temper of their body? for could men come but to learn the several motions of the body, which ingenious observations may come to do, they may easily come to learn the motions of the minde, and so come to know the thoughts, which thoughts are the several figures therein, which figures most commonly move sympathetically, with the motions of the body.
Chap. 209. To my just Readers.
I Desire all those that are friends to my book, if not to my book, for justice sake, that whatsoever is new is my own, which I hope all is; for I had never any guide to direct me, nor intelligence from any Authors, to advertise me, but write according to my own natural cogitations, where if any do write after the same manner in what language soever, that they will remember my work is the original of their discourse, but they that steal out my opinions, or compare them to old opinions, that are nothing alike, as if one should liken to men that had neither semblance in features, countenance, proportion, nor complexion, because they are two men, as being of madkinde, surely they might be judged to be fools; but may all such be condemned, as false, malicious, ridiculous or mad.
But to such noble dispositions as will give right, and speak truth, may they never receive injury, may honour crown them, fame applaud them, and time reward them with antiquity.
This Chapter although it belongs to another book, yet I thought it fit to joyn it to this discourse.
Chap. 210. The diatical Centers.
Although infinite matter and motion was from all eternity; yet that infinite moving matter is disposed by an in finite Deity, which hath power to order that moving matter, as that Deity pleaseth, by reason there is nothing greater then it self, therefore there is nothing that can oppose its will.
Likewise this Deity is as the center of infinite moving matter, for though there can be no center in infinites, by reason there is no circumference, yet in respect the matter is infinite every way from, and to this Deity; we may say the Deity is the center of infinite matter, and by reason, the infinite moving matter, flowes as much to this diatical, center, as from it, it doth as it were present it self, or rather is forced to be ordered, by its infinite wisdom, which otherwise it would run into an infinite confusion, with which there would be an infinite, horrid and eternal war in nature; and though this Deity is as the center to infinite matter, yet this Deity in it self is as infinite matter, for its wisdom is as infinite as matter, and its knowledge as infinite as its wisdom, and its power as infinite as both, and the effects of these attributes run with infinite matter, like infinite paralel lines, even and straight, not crossing, nor obstructing, nor can they circumference or circle in each other, the matter and the Deity being both infinite neither is the matter or Deity finite to, or in themselves, for infinite matter hath no end, or period, neither can the infinite Deity comprehend it self, so as it is a god to it self, as well, or as much as to matter; for this Deity is no wayes finite, neither to its self, nor matter, its knowledge being as infinite as its power, and its wisdom as infinite its knowledge, and its power as infinit as both, and being infinit, its wisdom cannot be above its power, nor its power beyond its wisdom, neither can its knowledge comprehend its power, or the wayes of its wisdom being all infinite and eternal.
And though nature is infinit matter, motion and figure creating all things out of its self, for of matter they are made, and by motion they are formed into several and particular figures, yet this Deity orders and disposes of all natures works.
Great God, from thee all infinites do flow;
And by thy power from thence effects do grow;
Thou orderest all degrees of matter, just
As t’is thy will and pleasure move it must,
And by thy knowledge orderd’st all the best,
For in thy knowledge doth thy wisdom rest;
And wisdom cannot order things amiss,
For where disorder is, no wisdom is.
Besides, great God, thy will is just, for why?
Thy will still on thy wisdom doth rely.
O pardon Lord, for what, I now hear speak
Upon a guesse, my knowledge is but weak;
But thou hast made such creatures as mankinde,
And gav’st them somthing which we cal a mind,
Alwayes in motion, never quiet lies,
Untill the figure, of his body dies,
His several thoughts, which several motions are
Do raise up love, hope, joyes, doubts and feare;
As love doth raise up hope, so fear doth doubt,
which makes him seek to find the great God out:
Self love doth make him seek to finde, if he
Came from, or shall last to eternity;
But motion being slow, makes knowledge weak,
And then his thoughts ‘gainst ignorance doth beat,
As fluid waters ‘gainst hard rocks do flow,
Break their soft streams, & so they backward go:
Just so do thoughts, & then they backward slide,
Unto the place, where first they did abide;
And there in gentle murmurs, do complain,
That all their care and labour is in vain;
But since none knows, the great Creator must,
Man seek no more, but in his greatness trust.
I Finde since I have read my book over, I could have enlarged that part of my book that treats of diseases, much to the advantage; but I must intreat my noble Readers, to remember there are natural humors, and metamorphosed humors, which are wrought by several motions, as those of Elements; Also that there are natural contractions, attractions, retentions, digestions, delations, expulsions; Likewise that there are unnatural of all these motions: that is, such as are proper or improper to the the natural health, or consistence of the several parts and the generality of the whole figure. Also that the motions that make the humor, and the motions that move the humor may be quite different, and some parts of a humor may be made by some sorts of motions, and some by other sorts of motions, where my discourse of the motions which makes the Elements will enlighten the Readers.
In my Epistle to my Honourable Readers, for pair read poiz.
In a Condemning Treatise of Atoms, for figures read febures.
p. 10. l. 28. r. dissolution.
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